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Modeling Disease Spread and Control

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453849 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-384-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Mathematical models are useful tools to understand the epidemiology and agent-host interaction of diseases. They are developed and applied since over a century, but with increasing computer capacity, they become increasingly prominent as part of evidence based decision making. Mathematical models are frequently used to construct preparedness and contingency plans for highly contagious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease. This allows proposing effective strategies to control the spread of the disease in case of an incursion, and avails useful tools to support decision making during an outbreak. They are also used to monitor, prevent and control endemic diseases within populations or farms. In addition, mathematical models improve our understanding of the contact structure between farms, pointing out risky elements in the contact network for disease introduction or further spread within the population. This Research Topic presents valuable studies presenting different aspects and implementations of mathematical modeling for disease spread and control in the veterinary field. The areas covered include model construction, network analysis, tools for decision makers, and cost-effective control of endemic diseases.

Hvorfor vokser steder?

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ISBN: 9788202549893 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.32 Language: Uncoded
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-22 11:01:57
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"Why do some places grow while others are shrinking? What are the most important driving forces behind increases in the number of inhabitants and jobs? How can places affect their own growth? This book is written for those who want to understand how structural forces affect the development of their locale and how one can create growth through increased attractiveness. Most Norwegian municipalities, cities, regions and counties try to stimulate growth and development in their localities. They want growth in the population and more jobs. This book describes the main features of regional development in Norway since 2000. Telemark Research Institute has proposed a new model, the attractiveness model, to explain the growth and development of places. This book explains how this model works, how it is constructed and how it can be used to understand the forces behind regional development."

Insight and Intuition - Two Sides of the Same Coin?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455195 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-519-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Insight and intuition might be the most mysterious and fascinating fields of human thinking and problem solving. They are different from standard and analytical problem solving accounts and provide the basis for creative and innovative thinking.Until now they were investigated in separate academic fields with differing tradition. Therefore, this eBook attempts to bridge the gap between both processes and to provide a more integrated perspective. Several experts address the underlying cognitive processes and provide a broad spectrum of new empirical, theoretical, and methodological insights.

Model-Based Demography: Essays on Integrating Data, Technique and Theory

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Book Series: Demographic Research Monographs ISSN: 1613-5520 ISBN: 9783319654324 9783319654331 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65433-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 12:41:56
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Late in a career of more than sixty years, Thomas Burch, an internationally known social demographer, undertook a wide-ranging methodological critique of demography. This open access volume contains a selection of resulting papers, some previously unpublished, some published but not readily accessible. Rejecting the idea that demography is simply a branch of applied statistics, his work views it as an autonomous and complete scientific discipline. When viewed from the perspective of modern philosophy of science, specifically the semantic or model-based school, demography is a balanced discipline, with a rich body of techniques and data, but also with more and better theories than generally recognized. As demonstrated in this book, some demographic techniques can also be seen as theoretical models, and some substantive/behavioral models, commonly rejected as theory because of inconsistent observations, are now seen as valuable theoretical models, for example demographic transition theory. This book shows how demography can build a strong theoretical edifice on its broad and deep empirical foundation by adoption of the model-based approach to science. But the full-fruits of this approach will require demographers to make greater use of computer modeling in the statement and manipulation of theoretical ideas, as well as for numerical computation.

Social Cognition, Motivation, and Interaction How Do People Respond to Threats in Social Interactions?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453740 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-374-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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f we want to understand people’s responses to threats in social interactions we can distinguish between three levels of analysis:On a social level of analysis we can describe people’s interpersonal behavior, on a cognitive level we can identify corresponding information processing mechanisms, and on a neural level we can specify neural systems, which underlie these processes.In this Research Topic we want to present research connecting these three levels of analysis and propose their functional interconnection in social interaction.We propose that threats in social interactions activate basic motivational processes, which manifest in neural processes related to behavioral inhibition vs. activation in a social situation. This shapes our attention to new information, and affects our cognitions about social identities, belief systems and worldviews. These changes in social cognition in turn affect people’s behavior in social interactions and lead to corresponding reactions on behalf of the interaction partner. Thus, we assume that people’s reactions to threat in interactions can be described as sequences of broader attentional processes resulting from basic motivational tendencies leading to specific social cognitions and subsequent behavior within social interactions. We can analyze this sequence in order to contribute to a better understanding of social interactions.The three levels of analyses (social, cognitive, neural) shed light on social interactions from different angles:On the social level we can analyze how the behaviors of the interaction partners mutually affect each other and how this is accompanied by specific cognitive, emotional and motivational processes. On the cognitive level we can analyze people’s perception of a social situation leading to attentional and reasoning processes with regard to their interaction partner/s, which may be accompanied by certain emotional and motivational processes and determines the behavior towards the partner/s. Finally, we can focus on the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in social interactions.

Single Period Inventory Control and Pricing

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631612224 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3726/b13914 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:25
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The price-setting newsvendor model is used to address the single period joint pricing and inventory control problem. The objective is to set the optimal price and replenishment quantity of a single product in order to maximize the expected profit. Products with a short selling season and relatively long replenishment lead times such as fashion goods are the most relevant application areas of the model. The focus of the work is the generalization of the model with respect to the modeling of uncertainty in demand. The author presents an analytical and empirical study which compares different demand models with a more flexible model based on price and inventory optimization. She concludes that using a general model can increase the profits significantly.

Multichannel Management

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631594452 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3726/b13906 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:26
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A company operating various sales channels, e.g. the Internet and a traditional shop, inevitably faces a tricky coordination problem. As prevalent approaches often do not lead to a satisfying solution, the author suggests a normative model to offer directions for the optimal channel coordination. The model is based on stochastic purchase and switching probabilities, given certain conditions like prices and supportive marketing activities (like delivery time or shop environment). A company can fit its consumer base to the model and simulate various effects on its earnings by altering prices or marketing activities. The model is a market-based playground to develop new holistic strategies for a multichannel company without affecting the market.

Parasite Infections: From Experimental Models to Natural Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454853 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-485-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Eukaryotic parasites (including parasitic protozoans, worms and arthropods) are more complex and heterogeneous organisms than pathogenic bacteria and viruses. This notion implies different evolutionary strategies of host exploitation. Typically, parasites establish long-term infections and induce relatively little mortality, as they often limit pathological changes by modulating host cells and downregulating adverse immune responses. Their pattern of distribution tends to be endemic rather than epidemic. Despite these seemingly benign traits, parasites usually cause substantial chronic morbidity, thus constituting an enormous socioeconomic burden in humans, particularly in resource poor countries, and in livestock worldwide. Parasite-induced fitness costs are an evolutionary force that can shape populations and contribute to species diversity. Therefore, a thorough understanding of parasites and parasitic diseases requires detailed knowledge of the respective biochemical, molecular and immunological aspects as well as of population genetics, epidemiology and ecology. This Research Topic (RT) bridges disciplines to connect molecular, immunological and wildlife aspects of parasitic infections. The RT puts emphases on four groups of parasites: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Giardia and intestinal helminths. Co-infections are also covered by the RT as they represent the most common form of parasite infections in wildlife and domestic animal populations. Within the four types of parasites the following topics are addressed: (1) Experimental models: hypothesis testing, translation and limits. (2) Critical appraisal of experimental models. (3) Natural systems: Technological advances for investigations in natural parasite-host systems and studies in natural systems. (4) The urgent need for better models and methods in natural parasite systems. Hence, the RT covers and illustrate by the means of four main parasitic infections the parasite-host system at the molecular, cellular and organismic level.

Programming Languages and Systems: 27th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2018, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece, April 14-20, 2018, Proceedings

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Book Series: Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues Series ISBN: 9783319898834 9783319898841 Year: Volume: 10801 Pages: 1058 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89884-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: ETAPS e.V.
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 15:05:43
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 27th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2018, which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece in April 2018, held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2018.The 36 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 114 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections named: language design; probabilistic programming; types and effects; concurrency; security; program verification; program analysis and automated verification; session types and concurrency; concurrency and distribution; and compiler verification.

Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: 24th International Conference, TACAS 2018, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece, April 14-20, 2018, Proceedings, Part II

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Book Series: Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues ISBN: 9783319899626 9783319899633 Year: Volume: 10806 Pages: 465 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89963-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: ETAPS e.V.
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-19 14:26:47
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The LNCS 10805 and 10806 proceedings set constitutes the proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2018, which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece, in April 2018, held as part of the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2018.The total of 43 full and 11 short papers presented in these volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 154submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections as follows:Part I: theorem proving; SAT and SMT I; deductive verification; software verification and optimization; model checking; and machine learning.Part II: concurrent and distributed systems; SAT and SMT II; security and reactive systems; static and dynamic program analysis; hybrid and stochastic systems; temporal logic and mu-calculus; 7th Competition on Software Verification – SV-COMP.

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