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25 Military Strategies for Samhandling in Unforeseen Situations (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch25 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is twofold. Firstly, a rather paradoxical situation
will be discussed. Even though most military practitioners seem to agree
on the characteristics of war, two almost diametrically-opposed norms for how to
samhandle have arisen: a centralized one and a decentralized one. We argue that the
decentralized approach, called Auftragstaktik, is the most effective. In the second
part of the chapter we discuss the pedagogical challenge of educating personnel to
thrive in a decentralized organization, which must operate effectively in unforeseen
and threatening environments. Based on the teachings of Moltke the Elder (1800–
1891) and the much more recent writings of Torgersen, Steiro and Saeverot (2015),
we argue that a crucial step in educating for the unforeseen is to give the students
the opportunity to solve new problems by themselves, gaining experience that is, as
far as possible, self-generated and thereby becoming more aware and confident in
dealing with new situations."

Complex Problem Solving Beyond the Psychometric Approach

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455737 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-573-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Complex problem solving (CPS) and related topics such as dynamic decision-making (DDM) and complex dynamic control (CDC) represent multifaceted psychological phenomena. In abroad sense, CPS encompasses learning, decision-making, and acting in complex and dynamic situations. Moreover, solutions to problems that people face in such situations are often generated in teams or groups. This adds another layer of complexity to the situation itself because of the emerging issues that arise from the social dynamics of group interactions. This framing of CPS means that it is not a single construct that can be measured by using a particular type of CPS task (e.g. minimal complex system tests), which is a view taken by the psychometric community. The proposed approach taken here is that because CPS is multifaceted, multiple approaches need to be taken to fully capture and understand what it is and how the different cognitive processes associated with it complement each other.Thus, this Research Topic is aimed at showcasing the latest work in the fields of CPS, as well as DDM and CDC that takes a holist approach to investigating and theorizing about these abilities. The collection of articles encompasses conceptual approaches as well as experimental and correlational studies involving established or new tools to examine CPS, DDM and CDC. This work contributes to answering questions about what strategies and what general knowledge can be transferred from one type of complex and dynamic situation to another, what learning conditions result in transferable knowledge and skills, and how these features can be trained.

Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Performance Problem Diagnostics by Systematic Experimentation

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Book Series: The Karlsruhe Series on Software Design and Quality / Ed. by Prof. Dr. Ralf Reussner ISSN: 18670067 ISBN: 9783731506775 Year: Volume: 20 Pages: XXVII, 443 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000070006 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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In this book, we introduce an automatic, experiment-based approach for performance problem diagnostics in enterprise software systems. The proposed approach systematically searches for root causes of detected performance problems by executing series of systematic performance tests. The presented approach is evaluated by various case studies showing that the presented approach is applicable to a wide range of contexts.

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