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Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783038427230 9783038427247 Year: Pages: 164 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:37:25
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Milk is a nutritious food item with various beneficial properties and has a long tradition in nutrition, having been part of human diet for thousands of years.The composition of milk varies among different species, and milk quality is affected by several factors, i.e., season, climate, feeding management, and stage of lactation, as well as heat-treatments and technological processes.Milk is a valuable source of bioactive components and its role and function in human diet has been increasingly investigated by epidemiological and experimental studies. Consumption of milk is influenced by several variables, i.e., sex, age, ethnicity, and other cultural factors, and specific recommendations vary from country to country.This book includes original researches and review papers, and provides an overview of the nutritional composition and profile of the bioactive components of milk, its variation, and its impact on human diet.

Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

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ISBN: 9783038429166 9783038429159 Year: Pages: XII, 296 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 17:31:13
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We are experiencing a worldwide epidemic of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health burden. Approximately seven million people develop diabetes in both developed and developing countries every year, with the most dramatic increases occurring in Type 2 Diabetes. Especially alarming, is the rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in obese children before puberty. In April 2017, a Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes” closed with 19 published papers—eight original studies on humans, five on animals, one brief report and five reviews. The focus of the issue was on nutrition, diet factors, whole foods, broad dietary and lifestyle strategies, dietary patterns, intensive personalized treatments, nutritional prevention programs, and food policies that can be used in the development, treatment, and prevention of DM2.Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes is written for clinical and academic nutritionists, for registered dietitians, health professionals, graduate students, and for everybody with deeper interest in diabetes care. Studies and reviews presented here demonstrate that diabetes research is extensive and vibrant and the prevention, treatment and reversal of diabetes are achievable, economical, powerful, and possible.

Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783038427025 9783038427018 Year: Pages: 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:40:05
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The subject of enteral nutrition is an interesting one both to the healthcare professionals working in this practice area and to the individuals who may benefit from nutritional support. These individuals usually have functional guts but may be suffering from dysphagia (with the underlying neurological deficits) or the effects of radiotherapy treatment. Enteral nutrition involves the provision of nutritional support to individuals whose nutritional requirements cannot be met by a normal diet. In particular, it is the process of delivering enteral feed via feeding tubes such nasogastric feeding, nasojejunal and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Often, enteral nutrition provision involves the assessment of nutritional status, the determination of nutritional requirements, the establishment of feeding regimes, and the management of patients, pumps, feeds, and feeding tubes.Researchers in this field are also keen to evaluate the effect of enteral feeding protocols, algorithms, and guidelines on patients with different medical conditions in various care settings. There have also been a series of comparisons between the use of feeding tubes, feeding methods, and management approaches. Economic evaluations of enteral nutrition and Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) teams show the benefits of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF); however, due to the rising cost of HETF, there has been intense debate on the subject. There have been reviews on advances, challenges, and prospects in enteral nutrition.This Special Issue is intended to provide information on recent advances in the area of enteral nutrition.

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429999 9783038970002 Year: Pages: X, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:00:08
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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of thecarbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, certain disease outcomes may be impacted by the amount and type of dietary carbohydrates consumed. Finally, carbohydrate obtainability is essential for optimal performance and endurance during sporting events. This book collates articles that either describe original research, or review the scientific literature on the topic of carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. .

Nutrigenetics

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ISBN: 9783038429951 9783038429968 Year: Pages: X, 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 11:45:06
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Precision Medicine, understood as “the emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person” is currently one of the most talked about themes in biomedicine and great efforts are being made internationally to turn this concept into a reality. As the concept of Precision Medicine spreads, so too does that of “Precision Nutrition”, which would have to take individual variability into account when recommending personalized diets.Although huge progress has been made over recent years in research into the genotype in inter-individual responses to diet, proving that this heterogeneity does indeed exist, we still do not have top level scientific evidence to make the eagerly-awaited personalized dietary recommendations, either from the prevention or treatment of different diseases point of view.It is, therefore, essential to gather more information from studies which, from the nutrigenetic point of view, analyze gene–diet interactions in the different intermediate and final phenotypes of diseases. The ideal situation would be to have results available from randomized and controlled clinical trials. Results on gene–diet interactions obtained from large cohorts, and other types of studies with replication in independent samples, are also of great importance. Similarly, if nutrigenetic findings are accompanied by more mechanistic evidence, integrating other omics, this would be of particular interest. Lastly, another topic of interest is to share strategies for implementing genome-based nutritional interventions.Therefore, this Special Issue of Nutrients, “Nutrigenetics”, will focus on providing evidence of the inter-individual genetic effects of diet in determining diseases phenotypes. We are looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts on these topics. Experimental papers, meta-analyses, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Current Topics on Superfoods

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ISBN: 9781789232080 9781789232097 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71214 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Superfood is a food that contains active ingredients or important nutrients at extremely high levels. Protective effects of superfoods on diseases have been remarked. Recently, several foods such as camu camu, chia seeds and goji berries are well known, and their trade has been rapidly increasing in the past 10 years. The purpose of this book is the development of a novel concept of superfoods and diet-containing superfoods. In the chapters, researchers have introduced the active components of superfoods and diets using such foods. Superfoods derived from fish and by-products of beer brewing are also introduced. Moreover, the procedure of bio-accessibility is also considered. I expect that the readers understand this novel concept of superfoods.

Diabetes Food Plan

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ISBN: 9781789232745 9781789232752 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68335 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Diabetes is a global pandemic where many remedies have been recommended as means of combating the prevalence of this disease. However, dietary control appears to be more effective than others. This book focuses on interventions concerning glycemic control, the oxidative stress-based occurrence of the disease and its prevention, as well as novel remedies. While many books have been published recently on this aspect, the book aims to serve as an update to the scientific community, as well as to those who have been adversely affected by the disease. There are many unexplored territories when it comes to diabetes, and it is hoped that this publication will open up new avenues of successfully curbing its occurrence.

Antioxidants in Foods and Its Applications

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ISBN: 9781789233780 9781789233797 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72008 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Free radicals are atoms or molecules containing unpaired electrons. Damage occurs when the free radical encounters another molecule and seeks to find another electron to pair its unpaired electron. Free radicals can cause mutation in different biological compounds such as protein, nucleic acids, and lipids, and the damage caused by the free radicals lead to various diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, aging, etc.). Antioxidants are helpful in reducing and preventing damage from free radical reactions because of their ability to donate electrons, which neutralize the radical without forming another. Ascorbic acid, for example, can lose an electron to a free radical and remain stable itself by passing its unstable electron around the antioxidant molecule. Unfortunately, new data indicate that the synthetic antioxidants used in the industry could have carcinogenic effects on human cells, thus fueling an intense search for new, natural, and efficient antioxidants. Therefore, the current book discusses the role and source of antioxidant compounds in nutrition and diets. Also, the current book includes nine chapters contributed by experts around the world, and the chapters are categorized into two sections: ""Antioxidant Compounds and Biological Activities"" and ""Natural Antioxidants and Applications.""

Metabolically Healthy Obesity

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ISBN: 9783038426868 9783038426875 Year: Pages: 206
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:06:23
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Accumulating evidence suggests that not all obese subjects are at increased cardiometabolic risk and that the “metabolically healthy obese” phenotype may exist in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. Limited data regards the determinants of metabolically healthy obesity exist, particularly in relation to genetics, dietary and lifestyle behaviours. In light of the current obesity epidemic, it is clear that current “one size fits all” approaches to tackle obesity are largely unsuccessful. Whether dietary, lifestyle and/or therapeutic interventions, based on stratification of obese individuals according to their metabolic health phenotype, are more effective remains to be seen, with limited and conflicting data available. This book includes original research articles and reviews of the scientific literature that contribute to our understanding of the role of clinical, biological, genetic, and environmental factors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity.

Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038428497 9783038428503 Year: Pages: VIII, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 15:57:56
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Nutrition and Allergic Diseases”, is to provide an overview of the role of nutrition in allergy. The prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and food allergy has increased tremendously over the last few decades. Is there a role for nutrition to help managing this global challenge? This Special Issue touches upon the many aspects that relate to nutrition and allergy and focuses on two fundamental questions:1) Can nutrition play a role in allergy prevention and induction?2) Can nutrition play a role in managing allergies?The topics covered range from the epidemiology of nutrition and allergy prevalence to the description of food components known to have beneficial effects on allergy, and include the importance of pregnancy and breastfeeding, the possibility of therapeutically targeting the microbiota in allergic diseases (with pre- or probiotics), the allergic effects of food processing, food allergies and related available treatments.

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