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Anaerobic Digestion

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456796 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Environmental Sciences
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a naturally-occurring biological process in soils, sediments, ruminants, and several other anoxic environments, that cycles carbon and other nutrients, and converts organic matter into a methane-rich gas. As a biotechnology, AD is now well-established for the treatment of the organic fraction of various waste materials, including wastewaters, but is also increasingly applied for an expanding range of organic feedstocks suitable for biological conversion to biogas. AD applications are classified in various ways, including on the basis of bioreactor design; and operating parameters, such as retention time, temperature, pH, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) contents, and biodegradability of substrates. AD is an attractive bioenergy and waste / wastewater treatment technology. The advantages of AD for waste treatment include: production of a useable fuel (biogas/methane); possibility of high organic loading; reduced carbon footprint; and suitability for integration into a wide variety of process configurations and scales. Specifically, two important, and developing, applications exemplify the potential of AD technologies: (1) the integration of AD as the basis of the core technologies underpinning municipal wastewater, and sewage, treatment, to displace less sustainable, and more energy-intensive, aerobic biological treatment systems in urban water infrastructures; and (2) technical innovations for higher-rate conversions of high-solids wastestreams, and feedstocks, for the production of energy carriers (i.e. methane-biogas, but possibly also biohydrogen) and other industrially-relevant intermediates, such as organic acids.Internationally, the research effort to maximize AD biogas yield has increased ten-fold over the past decade. Depending on the feedstocks, bioreactor design and process parameters, fundamental and applied knowledge are still required to improve conversion rates and biogas yields. This Research Topic cover aspects related to AD processes, such as the effect of feedstock composition, as well as the effect of feedstock pre-treatment, bioreactor design and operating modes, on process efficiency; microbial community dynamics and systems biology; influence of macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and availability; process control; upgrading and calibration of anaerobic digestion models (e.g. ADM1) considering the biochemical routes as well as the hydrodynamics in such ecosystems; and novel approaches to process monitoring, such as the development, and application, of novel, and rapid diagnostic assays, including those based on molecular microbiology. Detailed full-scale application studies were also particularly welcomed.

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453726 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-372-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs.Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder.This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed.The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
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In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

The Neurobiology and Genetics of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: New Avenues through Large-Scale Collaborative Projects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453238 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-323-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Neurology --- Pediatrics
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Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a common, albeit severely under-diagnosed, neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by a complex genetic basis, interacting with environmental factors. High comorbidity rates with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder raise the intriguing hypothesis of a shared etiological background. Abnormalities of corticostriatal-thalamic-cortical circuits (CSTC) and dysfunction of both dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems are assumed to be associated with TS. Recently, multiple lines of evidence also point towards an important role of additional neurotransmitters such as histamine and glutamate. For a very long time, efforts to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of TS have been fragmented and hampered by low statistical power. Finally, after more than two decades of active research aiming to identify the etiology and pathophysiology of TS, we are on the verge of a new era, promising exciting and rapid discoveries in the field. Investigators from around the world, representing multiple disciplines and scientific approaches, are joining their efforts in large-scale initiatives supported both by European Union and US National funding agencies, such as the European-funded EMTICS, TACTICS, and TSGeneSEE consortia, the Marie Curie Initial Training Network TS-EUROTRAIN and the European Society for the Study of TS joining forces with the NIH-funded TSAICG, GGRI, and Tic Genetics consortia. Importantly, all these initiatives are supported by TS patient support and advocacy groups. Multiple resources are being consolidated and coming together to serve the study of TS, including large well-characterized patient cohorts, and specialized epidemiological databases, such as the unique resource of the Netherlands Twin Register. This research topic showcases current large-scale collaborative efforts aiming to elucidate the genetic and neurobiological background of TS, through diverse approaches; from genomewide association studies aiming to identify common variants associated to the disorder to neuroimaging studies and animal models. Furthermore, current approaches on the clinical assessment and management of the disorder are presented. Propelled by the gradual availability of large scale TS cohorts, novel methodologies, and importantly, sheer enthusiasm by multiple researchers working together across different countries, the new era of the neurobiology of TS holds the promise to identify novel targets for improved therapies.

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
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This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Controversies in the Local Management of Lung Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455614 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-561-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
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This special edition of Frontiers in Oncology reviews the current efficacy and limitations of surgical and radiotherapeutic management of lung cancer and provides insight into how local management options may change in the future.

Bilateral Vestibulopathy - Current Knowledge and Future Directions to Improve its Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456284 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-628-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
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Many patients with bilateral vestibulopathy experience chronic oscillopsia due to failure of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and gait instability due to failure of vestibulo-spinal reflexes. There are numerous potential contributing factors, however, many cases remain idiopathic. The diagnosis of bilateral vestibulopathy is often delayed, placing patients at risk for unnecessary diagnostic tests and late initiation of treatment. Novel diagnostic tests offer new opportunities to characterize patterns of vestibular impairment. With the advent of new therapies, there is urgency to define and better understand patients with bilateral vestibulopathy. This collection includes topics such as an exploration of the large class of patients with bilateral vestibulopathy currently considered idiopathic, by identifying novel pathophysiologic mechanisms. Other topics include a historical perspective on early recognition, the impact of bilateral vestibular impairment on quality of life, and how advances in diagnostics are refining our understanding of what it means to have bilateral vestibulopathy. New developments in treatment strategies for patients with bilateral vestibulopathy are also featured.

Parenthood From Biology to Relation. Prevention, Assessment and Interventions for Developmental and Clinical Issues

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456642 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-664-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
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Parenthood represents a fundamental construct that identifies the quality of early adult-infant interactions. In both short and long period, relationships, as primary interactional experiences, have an essential role in influencing individual’s adjustment and psychopathology development during in lifetime. In this scenario, the most important areas of interest and innovation are (a) parents’ representation of themselves, both in relation to the child and to their care-giving role; (b) the quality of couple relationship, in terms of both conjugal and co-parental bounds, and its influence on the quality of early mother-father-child interactions; (c) the early models of caregiver-baby interaction; (d) the recent approach to the “maternal brain”, that represents the contribution coming from neurosciences, linked to the adult’s activation and cerebral functioning processes, in association with the parental role. These data are a starting point for the individuation of functioning mechanisms and developmental trajectories of parenting in groups of adults and babies, belonging to normative populations. At the same time, those studies may provide an important introduction to the detection of critical and/or dysfunctional aspects in populations of babies and adults at risk (e.g. preterm babies, adopted children, etc.) or in adults’ clinical group (e.g. a depressed parents, addicted parents, etc.) or in children with one or more impaired characteristic (e.g. children with organic diseases, with autistic disorders, etc.).. The present Research Topic puts the attention on these themes, particularly, considering the possible aftermaths that empirical research may have on planning and realizing interventional models to support the parental functioning. We will consider papers focused on the individuation of methods of observation and assessment, which allow to plan and realize prevention programs and/or interventions, primarily focused on parental support, both in the early stadium of the child’s development and in the long-term period. Thus, the focus is both on the prevention and sustenance sphere and, also, on specific manners of taking on the therapeutic responsibility of the adult-infant relationship.

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2018 (12)