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Metamaterials and Metasurfaces

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ISBN: 9781789848427 9781789848434 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73359 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Metamaterials have provided applications in spectral ranges covering radio frequencies and ultraviolet. However, most applications have been extrapolated to the visible or near-infrared after being developed at the GHz level. This is due to technological reasons since fabrication of microwave antennas is not as demanding as THz resonators or plasmonic nanostructures. Accordingly, this book has been divided into three parts. In the first part, fundamentals of metamaterials and metadevices are discussed, while describing recent advances in the field. In the second part, the discussion is extended to the different spectral ranges focusing on the strategies for enabling the reconfigurability of metadevices. Given the increasing interest in THz applications, these can be found in the third part.

Characterizations of Some Composite Materials

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ISBN: 9781789849110 9781789849127 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73357 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Composite materials are materials made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties; when combined, a new material with characteristics different from the individual components is produced, while the individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new composite material often displays many beneficial characteristics; in many cases, composites are stronger, of lower density, or less costly in comparison to established materials. Based on the classification of composites, we are already familiar with the fact that there exists a myriad of different types of these materials. It is a common saying that different types of composites differ in their performance. Yet, composites also have some characteristics in common. The proper material choice for an envisaged application is of outstanding importance and key in the development of a new product. Selecting the most suitable material determines the performance and characterization of the final product whether it will meet the designated function and performance requirements. The present book ""Characterizations of some composite materials"" contains eight selected chapters, starting with a general introductory chapter on composite materials, and covers different aspects in characterizing some composite materials. In this context, the present book is considered an appropriate way to communicate the advances in characterization of some composite materials to the scientific community. Chemists, scientists, and researchers from related areas, and undergraduates involved in materials issues and interested in approaches to improve the quality of life, as well as people from industry could find this book to be an inspiring and effective guide.

Optimum Composite Structures

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ISBN: 9781789850673 9781789850680 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74696 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The subject of optimum composite structures is a rapidly evolving field and intensive research and development have taken place in the last few decades. Therefore, this book aims to provide an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the current status in this field to the research community. The contributing authors combine structural analysis, design and optimization basis of composites with a description of the implemented mathematical approaches. Within this framework, each author has dealt with the individual subject as he/she thought appropriate. Each chapter offers detailed information on the related subject of its research with the main objectives of the works carried out as well as providing a comprehensive list of references that should provide a rich platform of research to the field of optimum composite structures.

Mesoporous Materials - Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9781838806491 9781838806507 9781838806873 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79068 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The basic theme of this book is to understand the fundamentals and importance of porous functional materials, their properties, and significant applications like solar cells, batteries, photovoltaics, energy conversions, and mesoporous materials. This book covers the fundamentals of mesoporous materials, and various methods of synthesis, properties, and applications in different sectors.

Rietveld Refinement in the Characterization of Crystalline Materials

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ISBN: 9783038975274 / 9783038975281 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-528-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 10:16:11
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This Special Issue serves as a crystallographic forum covering various aspects of material science that have in common the use of the powerful Rietveld method in the analysis of the powder XRD patterns of investigated compounds.

Advancements in Biomass Recalcitrance: The Use of Lignin for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457069 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-706-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Lignocellulosic biomass has great potentials as an alternative feedstock for fuels and chemicals. For effective utilization of biomass, biomass recalcitrance, which is inherent resistance of plant cell walls to biological deconstruction, needs to be reduced. Among many factors in biomass, lignin is significantly related to biomass recalcitrance. Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, is the largest non-carbohydrate component (15-40% dry weight) in most terrestrial plants. In nature, it provides a structural integrity, facilitates water and nutrient transport, and protects plants from microbial attack. From a different angle, lignin significantly contributes to biomass recalcitrance, so it is necessary to reduce and/or modify the lignin for effective conversion of biomass. Genetic modifications of the lignin biosynthetic pathway and lignin-targeting pretreatments have been developed to minimize the lignin-induced biomass recalcitrance. High carbon content of lignin also renders it an attractive feedstock for many applications. About 100,000 to 200,000 tons of lignin can be generated per year as a byproduct from cellulosic ethanol production, so valorization of these lignins could be one of keys for achieving economic biorefinery. However, investigations of lignin conversion have not been accomplished as the utilization of carbohydrates in biomass. Depolymerization of lignin is still challenging because of its broad distribution of bond strengths, recondensation of low-molecular species, and poor product selectivity. Diverse biological and thermochemical depolymerization methods have been investigated to overcome these barriers. In this Research Topic, recent advancements in biomass recalcitrance by effective utilization of lignin are introduced.

Feature Papers for Celebrating the Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Processes

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ISBN: 9783038975250 / 9783038975267 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-526-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 12:02:18
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Processes” is a commonly used term to describe engineered systems such as oil refineries, polymer production plants, and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes that serve a commercial and societal purpose. However, the term can also capture the underlying processes that drive the behavior of complex natural systems such as communities of different organisms in the environment and networked collections of neurons in the human brain. This book provides a representative overview of current challenges and recent advances in the broadly-defined “processes” field. Contributions from leading researchers in the field are conveniently ordered according to five applications domains: chemical systems, biological systems, materials processes, computational methods, and other related topics. The 19 contributions demonstrate the broad range of application domains within the process field, including fluid flow systems, fuel gases, chemical production, polymer manufacturing, food processing, protein synthesis and separation, pharmaceutical production, and water systems. This collection shows that “processes” remain a vibrant area of research, and continued advances in the field can be expected to have a positive impact on our economy, environment, and quality of life.

Electrical and Electronic Properties of Materials

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ISBN: 9781789849295 9781789849301 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73110 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Materials properties, whether microscopic or macroscopic, are of immense interest to the materials scientists, physicists, chemists as well as to engineers. Investigation of such properties, theoretically and experimentally, has been one of the fundamental research directions for many years that has also resulted in the discovery of many novel materials. It is also equally important to correctly model and measure these materials properties. Keeping such interests of research communities in mind, this book has been written on the properties of polyesters, varistor ceramics, and powdered porous compacts and also covers some measurement and parameter extraction methods for dielectric materials. Four contributed chapters and an introductory chapter from the editor explain each class of materials with practical examples.

Fillers - Synthesis, Characterization and Industrial Application

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ISBN: 9781789857917 9781789857924 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75241 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Fillers - Synthesis, Characterization and Industrial Application comprises a set of chapters that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of filler materials for the synthesis and characterization of different industrial applications. This book embraces all the chapters that are concerned with the effect of incorporating different fillers or particulates in fabricated composites. Significant research efforts all around the world are continuing to explore the properties of composite materials. Researchers are collectively focusing their efforts on the use of particulate fillers in composites for miscellaneous applications. This book delivers a comprehensive study associated with the sections of material science, polymer technology, anisotropic elasticity phenomena, fracture mechanics, applied mechanics, material synthesis, mechanical and thermo-mechanical characteristics, tribological behavior, etc.

Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications

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ISBN: 9783038976066 / 9783038976073 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-607-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-13 10:07:39
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Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their vertical/lateral heterostructures are currently the subject of massive research interests, both for fundamental science and for technological applications in diverse fields, such as electronics, optoelectronics, quantum metrology, spintronics, membranes, energy conversion/storage, and sensing. Integration of 2D materials within real device structures currently represents the main challenge to move from the laboratory stage to industrial applications, especially in the fields of electronics/optoelectronics.This Book is a collection of 9 papers, covering the different key topics of this rapidly developing research field. These include: synthesis of 2D materials, progress in relevant processing issues (contact, doping and mobility engineering), advanced characterization techniques, novel device applications based on the integration of these 2D materials.Many of the papers of this collection are review papers, providing the general introductory information and a broad overview of the most recent advances in the specific topic. Hence, this book can serve both as a general introduction for non-experts in the field and as a guide for scientists/engineers working in the field of 2D materials integration.

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