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Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in decades and, in addition, is a ""green"" technology due to its energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and versatility. This process offers a number of advantages over conventional joining processes. Furthermore, because welding occurs via the deformation of material at temperatures below the melting temperature, many problems commonly associated with joining of dissimilar alloys can be avoided, and thus, highquality welds are produced. Due to this fact, FSW has been widely used in different industrial applications where metallurgical characteristics should be retained, such as in the aeronautic, naval, and automotive industries.
FSW process  aluminum alloy  stainless steel  intermetallic compounds  mechanical strength  friction stir welding  dissimilar welded joints  materials position  material orientation  process analysis  microstructure analysis  mechanical behaviour  friction stir welding  abnormal grain growth  high nitrogen steel  postweld heat treatment  nonequilibrium segregation  dissimilar joints  frictionstir welding  the rotational speeds  microstructure  mechanical properties  Vickers microhardness  Fecontaining constituents  lognormal distribution  friction stir processing  aluminum alloy  surface composites  particle distribution  high rotation speed friction stir welding  pin shapes  grain orientation  friction stir spot welding  plunge depth  adaptive control  force–deflection model  hightemperature softening materials  dissimilar metal welding  FSW  tilt angle  friction  material flow  Al/Fe dissimilar joining  friction stir welding  plunge depth control  offset position control  deflection compensation control  n/a
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.
Arabidopsis  Brassica napus  ion homeostasis  melatonin  NaCl stress  nitric oxide  redox homeostasis  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  bZIP transcription factors  salt stress  transcriptional regulation  photosynthesis  lipid accumulation  Apocyni Veneti Folium  salt stress  multiple bioactive constituents  physiological changes  multivariate statistical analysis  banana (Musa acuminata L.)  ROP  genomewide identification  abiotic stress  salt stress  MaROP5g  rice  genomewide association study  salt stress  germination  natural variation  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  salt stress  transcriptome analysis  impairment of photosynthesis  underpinnings of salt stress responses  chlorophyll fluorescence  J81 plum line  mandelonitrile  Prunus domestica  redox signalling  salicylic acid  saltstress  soluble nutrients  Arabidopsis thaliana  VOZ  transcription factor  salt stress  transcriptional activator  chlorophyll fluorescence  lipid peroxidation  Na+  photosynthesis  photosystem  RNA binding protein  nucleolin  salt stress  photosynthesis  light saturation point  booting stage  transcriptome  grapevine  salt stress  ROS detoxification  phytohormone  transcription factors  Arabidopsis  CDPK  ion homeostasis  NMT  ROS  salt stress  antioxidant enzymes  Arabidopsis thaliana  ascorbate cycle  hydrogen peroxide  reactive oxygen species  salinity  SnRK2  RNAseq  DEUs  flax  NaCl stress  ESTSSR  Salt stress  Oryza sativa  proteomics  iTRAQ quantification  cell membrane injury  root activity  antioxidant systems  ion homeostasis  melatonin  salt stress  signal pathway  SsMAX2  Sapium sebiferum  drought, osmotic stress  salt stress  redox homeostasis  strigolactones  ABA  TGase  photosynthesis  salt stress  polyamines  cucumber  abiotic stresses  high salinity  HKT1  halophytes  glycophytes  poplars (Populus)  salt tolerance  molecular mechanisms  SOS  ROS  Capsicum annuum L.  CaDHN5  salt stress  osmotic stress  dehydrin  Gossypium arboretum  salt tolerance  single nucleotide polymorphisms  association mapping.  n/a
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Emergent quantum mechanics explores the possibility of an ontology for quantum mechanics. The resurgence of interest in ""deeperlevel"" theories for quantum phenomena challenges the standard, textbook interpretation. The book presents expert views that critically evaluate the significance—for 21st century physics—of ontological quantum mechanics, an approach that David Bohm helped pioneer. The possibility of a deterministic quantum theory was first introduced with the original de BroglieBohm theory, which has also been developed as Bohmian mechanics. The wide range of perspectives that were contributed to this book on the occasion of David Bohm’s centennial celebration provide ample evidence for the physical consistency of ontological quantum mechanics. The book addresses deeperlevel questions such as the following: Is reality intrinsically random or fundamentally interconnected? Is the universe local or nonlocal? Might a radically new conception of reality include a form of quantum causality or quantum ontology? What is the role of the experimenter agent? As the book demonstrates, the advancement of ‘quantum ontology’—as a scientific concept—marks a clear break with classical reality. The search for quantum reality entails unconventional causal structures and nonclassical ontology, which can be fully consistent with the known record of quantum observations in the laboratory.
quantum foundations  nonlocality  retrocausality  Bell’s theorem  Bohmian mechanics  quantum theory  surrealistic trajectories  Bell inequality  quantum mechanics  generalized Lagrangian paths  covariant quantum gravity  emergent spacetime  Gaussianlike solutions  entropy and time evolution  resonances in quantum systems  the Friedrichs model  complex entropy.  Bell’s theorem  the causal arrow of time  retrocausality  superdeterminism  toymodels  quantum ontology  subquantum dynamics  microconstituents  emergent spacetime  emergent quantum gravity  entropic gravity  black hole thermodynamics  SternGerlach  trajectories  spin  Bell theorem  fractal geometry  padic metric  singular limit  gravity  conspiracy  free will  number theory  quantum potential  Feynman paths  weak values  Bohm theory  nohiddenvariables theorems  observables  measurement problem  Bohmian mechanics  primitive ontology  Retrocausation  weak values  Stochastic Electrodynamics  quantum mechanics  decoherence  interpretations  pilotwave theory  Bohmian mechanics  Born rule statistics  measurement problem  quantum thermodynamics  strong coupling  operator thermodynamic functions  quantum theory  de Broglie–Bohm theory  contextuality  atomsurface scattering  bohmian mechanics  matterwave optics  diffraction  vortical dynamics  Schrödinger equation  de Broglie–Bohm theory  nonequilibrium thermodynamics  zeropoint field  de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics  pilot wave  interiorboundary condition  ultraviolet divergence  quantum field theory  Aharonov–Bohm effect  physical ontology  nomology  interpretation  gauge freedom  Canonical Presentation  relational space  relational interpretation of quantum mechanics  measurement problem  nonlocality  discrete calculus  iterant  commutator  diffusion constant  LeviCivita connection  curvature tensor  constraints  Kilmister equation  Bianchi identity  stochastic differential equations  Monte Carlo simulations  Burgers equation  Langevin equation  fractional velocity  interpretations of quantum mechanics  David Bohm  mind–body problem  quantum holism  fundamental irreversibility  spacetime fluctuations  spontaneous state reduction  Poincaré recurrence  symplectic camel  quantum mechanics  Hamiltonian  molecule interference  matterwaves  metrology  magnetic deflectometry  photochemistry  past of the photon  Mach–Zehnder interferometer  Dove prism  photon trajectory  weak measurement  transition probability amplitude  atomic metastable states  Bell’s theorem  Bohmian mechanics  nonlocality  many interacting worlds  wavefunction nodes  bouncing oil droplets  stochastic quantum dynamics  de Broglie–Bohm theory  quantum nonequilibrium  Htheorem  ergodicity  ontological quantum mechanics  objective nonsignaling constraint  quantum inaccessibility  epistemic agent  emergent quantum state  selfreferential dynamics  dynamical chaos  computational irreducibility  undecidable dynamics  Turing incomputability  quantum ontology  nonlocality  timesymmetry  retrocausality  quantum causality  conscious agent  emergent quantum mechanics  Bohmian mechanics  de BroglieBohm theory
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