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Resveratrol - Adding Life to Years, Not Adding Years to Life

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ISBN: 9781789849943 9781789849950 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74428 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book intends to strike a balance between developments in research and the fact that researchers must absorb and link to scientific advances with clinical practice so that the management of diseases can be based on sound physiological concepts. This book addresses several controversial issues regarding a natural molecule with fascinating pharmacological and therapeutic effects. The book contains three sections: Section 1: Pharmacology and Therapeutic Applications of Resveratrol; Section 2: Bioavailability, Metabolism, and Mode of Action of Resveratrol; Section 3: Resveratrol and Its Role in Chronic and Degenerative Diseases. Does it Add Life to Years or Years to Life? It is our hope that this book will motivate readers to approach the evidence on the use resveratrol and thereby spark an interest in making further contributions to the current scientific debate and treatment development efforts.

Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Trichoderma Species

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ISBN: 9783038979807 9783038979814 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-981-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The importance of bioactive natural compounds in pharmacology and other biotechnological fields has stimulated the scientific community to explore new environmental contexts and their associated microbial diversity. As the largest frontier in biological discovery, the sea represents a significant source of organisms producing novel secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. Of the available biological material, fungi have received increasing consideration, both due to their pervasive occurrence in varying habitats as well as their aptitude to develop symbiotic associations with higher organisms in numerous contexts. In many cases, fungal strains have been reported as the real producers of drugs originally extracted from marine plants and animals. Due to the constantly increasing number of marine-derived fungi yielding valuable bioactive products, it is now appropriate to present these findings to a recipient audience in a more organized form. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs, entitled “Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Trichoderma Species"" is specifically focused on a few genera of ascomycetous fungi which are widespread regarding marine contexts and are particularly inclined to establishing symbiotic relationships. For this project, we welcome submissions of full research papers, short notes, and review articles reporting the discovery and characterization of products showing antibiotic, antitumor, antiviral, insecticidal, antimalarial, antifouling, antioxidant, plant growth-promoting and/or resistance-inducing, as well as other less-exploited activities.

New Approaches for the Discovery of Pharmacologically-Active Natural Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039211043 9783039211050 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-105-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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A major source of active compounds, natural products from different sources supply a large variety of molecules that have been approved for clinical use or used as the starting points of optimization programs. This book features nine papers (eight full articles and one review paper) written by more than 45 scientists from around the world. These papers illustrate the development and application of a broad range of computational and experimental techniques applied to natural product research. On behalf of the contributors to the book, our hope is that the research presented here contributes to advancements in the field, and encourages multidisciplinary teams, young scientists, and students to further advance in the discovery of pharmacologically-active natural compounds

Molecular Modeling in Drug Design

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ISBN: 9783038976141 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-615-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Molecular Modeling in Drug Design that was published in Molecules

Keywords

hyperlipidemia --- squalene synthase (SQS) --- molecular modeling --- drug discovery --- Traditional Chinese Medicine --- molecular dynamics simulation --- biophenols --- natural compounds --- amyloid fibrils --- Alzheimer’s disease --- ligand–protofiber interactions --- adhesion --- FimH --- rational drug design --- molecular dynamics --- molecular docking --- ligand binding --- EphA2-ephrin A1 --- PPI inhibition --- interaction energy --- in silico screening --- adenosine --- boron cluster --- adenosine receptors --- AR ligands --- aggregation --- promiscuous mechanism --- human ecto-5?-nucleotidase --- virtual screening --- enzymatic assays --- turbidimetry --- dynamic light scattering --- docking --- solvent effect --- binding affinity --- scoring function --- molecular dynamics --- target-focused pharmacophore modeling --- density-based clustering --- structure-based drug design --- AutoGrid --- grid maps --- probe energies --- method development --- steered molecular dynamics --- all-atom molecular dynamics simulation --- resultant dipole moment --- mechanical stability --- protein-peptide interactions --- molecular dynamics --- proteins --- molecular recognition --- protein protein interactions --- artificial intelligence --- deep learning --- neural networks --- property prediction --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) --- quantitative structure-property prediction (QSPR) --- de novo design --- adenosine receptor --- metadynamics --- extracellular loops --- allosterism --- molecular dynamics --- cosolvent molecular dynamics --- drug design --- fragment screening --- docking

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

Unconventional Anticancer Metallodrugs and Strategies to Improve their Pharmacological Profile

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ISBN: 9783039213153 9783039213160 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-316-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For the past 40 years, metal-based drugs have been widely used for the treatment of cancer. Cisplatin and follow-up drugs carboplatin (ParaplatinTM) and oxaliplatin (EloxatinTM) have been the gold standard for metallodrugs in clinical settings as antineoplastic agents. While effective, these drugs (either alone or in combination therapy) have faced a number of clinical challenges resulting from their limited spectrum of activity, high toxicity leading to significant side effects, resistance, poor water solubility, low bioavailability and short circulating time. In the past 10 years, various unconventional non-platinum metal-based agents have emerged as a potential alternative for cancer treatment. These compounds are highly effective and selective in cancers resistant to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents. Research in this area has recently exploded with a relevant number of patents and clinical trials, in addition to reports in scientific journals. Furthermore, in parallel to the synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds comprising many different metals and unconventional platinum-based derivatives, researchers are focused on optimizing mechanistic and pharmacological features of promising drug candidates. This Special Issue aims to highlight the latest advances in anticancer metallodrugs with a focus on unconventional anticancer agents, as well as novel activation, targeting and delivery strategies aimed at improving their pharmacological profile.

Curcumin in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039214495 9783039214501 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-450-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The plant-derived polyphenol curcumin has been used in promoting health and combating disease for thousands of years. Its therapeutic effects have been successfully utilized in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine in order to treat inflammatory diseases. Current results from modern biomolecular research reveal the modulatory effects of curcumin on a variety of signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation and cancer. In this context, curcumin’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and even anti-metastatic activities are discussed. On the cellular level, the reduced activity of several transcription factors (such as NFkB or AP-1) and the suppression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix degrading enzymes, metastasis related genes and even microRNAs are reported. On functional levels, these molecular effects translate into reduced proliferative, invasive, and metastatic capacity, as well as induced tumor cell apoptosis. All these effects have been observed not only in vitro but also in animal models. In combination with anti-neoplastic drugs like Taxol, kinase inhibitors, and radiation therapy, curcumin potentiates the drugs’ therapeutic power and can protect against undesired side effects. Natural plant-derived compounds like curcumin have one significant advantage: They do not usually cause side effects. This feature qualifies curcumin for primary prevention in healthy persons with a predisposition to cancer, arteriosclerosis, or chronic inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, curcumin is considered safe, although potential toxic effects stemming from high dosages, long-term intake, and pharmacological interactions with other compounds have yet to be assessed. This Special Issue examines in detail and updates current research on the molecular targets, protective effects, and modes of action of natural plant-derived compounds and their roles in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Keywords

brain ischemia --- curcumin --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neurodegeneration --- amyloid --- tau protein --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- apoptosis --- genes --- glioblastoma multiforme --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- curcumin --- chaperone-mediated autophagy --- Akt/mTOR signaling --- transmission electron microscopy --- Curcuma longa --- turmeric tuber --- Zingiberaceae --- TLC bioautography --- antimicrobial agents --- ImageJ --- TLC-MS --- hydrostatic counter-current chromatography --- centrifugal partition chromatography --- curcumin --- death receptor --- apoptosis --- curcumin --- anticancer --- structure activity relationship --- cellular pathway --- mechanism of action --- delivery system --- wound --- wound healing --- diet --- nutrition --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- curcumin --- amino-acids --- vitamins --- minerals --- curcumin --- oxidative metabolites --- inflamm-aging --- cancer --- metabolic reprogramming --- direct protein binding --- IL-17 --- STAT3 --- SHMT2 --- ageing --- anti-cancer --- autophagy --- microbiota --- senescence --- senolytics --- curcumin --- transthyretin --- amyloidosis --- protein aggregation --- protein misfolding --- drug discovery --- curcumin --- renal cell cancer --- tumor growth --- tumor proliferation --- cell cycling --- curcumin --- reflux esophagitis --- gastroprotection --- gastric ulcer --- Helicobacter pylori --- gastric cancer --- curcumin --- complementary medicine --- cancer treatment --- supportive care --- antioxidants --- anti-inflamation --- ulcerative colitis --- Crohn’s disease --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- curcumin --- inflammatory bowel disease --- curcumin --- silica --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- anti-tumor --- antioxidant activity --- n/a

Prospects for Schistosomiasis Elimination

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213573 9783039213580 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-358-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Current efforts to limit the ravages of schistosomiasis are pushing the world closer to eliminating a chronic infection that has been associated with human life in the tropics since time immemorial. This notwithstanding, the disease remains a scourge for large populations in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, and the main part of this book is made up by papers dealing with its current distribution, discussing ways and means to establish and implement improved control approaches. While chemotherapy limits the symptoms caused by schistosomiasis, the number of infected people will not decrease until the parasite's life cycle is interrupted. To that end, some papers focus on the intermediate snail host, which is notoriously difficult to control, while others discuss human hygiene and sanitation. The latter approach not only prevents infection through avoiding people being infected from the snail, but more importantly, also stops people infecting the snail by leaving contagious feces and urine in nature. With morbidity reduced by chemotherapy, the immediate target now is the interruption of transmission to be achieved by new tools, such as the novel chemotherapies, improved diagnostics (for humans, animals, and snails), and vaccines discussed in several of the papers. As made clear in this book, a complex infection requires new tools as well as work on many fronts, above all; however, a clear idea is needed as to how to skillfully combine the tools available and sustain implemented control activities.

Keywords

schistosomiasis --- Schistosoma --- vaccine --- zoonosis --- Asia --- Africa --- domestic animals --- buffalo --- cattle --- sheep --- goats --- Côte d’Ivoire --- coverage rate --- praziquantel --- preventive chemotherapy --- Schistosoma haematobium --- Schistosoma mansoni --- schistosomiasis --- diagnosis --- control and elimination --- DNA --- polymerase chain reaction --- schistosomiasis --- control --- elimination --- Africa --- operational research --- goals --- guidelines --- schistosomiasis --- vector control --- snail resistance --- gene drive --- transgenic snail --- schistosomiasis --- Kato-Katz --- POC-CCA --- young adults --- soil-transmitted helminths --- n/a --- Mayuge --- MDA coverage --- praziquantel --- S. mansoni --- systematic non-compliance --- treatment-opportunities --- Uganda --- climate change --- schistosomiasis --- distribution --- intermediate snail host --- transmission --- modelling --- schistosomiasis --- soil-transmitted-helminthiasis --- mapping --- preventive chemotherapy --- transmission control --- Gabon --- Central Africa --- schistosomiasis --- vaccine --- Sm14 --- FABP --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Oncomelania hupensis --- snail --- 28S ribosomal DNA --- PCR --- loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) --- pooled samples --- China --- schistosomiasis --- elimination --- praziquantel --- artemether --- combination therapy --- phylogeography --- Bulinus truncatus --- planorbidae --- Africa --- schistosomiasis --- neglected tropical diseases --- WIPO Re:Search --- BIO Ventures for Global Health --- cross-sector collaboration --- capacity-building --- drug discovery --- public-private partnerships --- GIS --- remote-sensing --- satellite --- international space station --- ECOSTRESS --- worldview --- spatio-temporal epidemiology --- climate change --- parasite --- schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis --- n/a --- schistosomiasis --- systems epidemiology --- systems thinking --- complexity --- neglected tropical diseases --- interdisciplinarity --- Schistosomiasis mansoni --- Caribbean --- elimination --- snail control --- Biomphalaria glabrata --- Schistosoma mekongi --- Neotricula aperta --- snail --- Cambodia --- Lao PDR --- elimination --- Asia --- control --- elimination --- epidemiology --- Schistosoma japonicum --- Schistosoma malayensis --- Schistosoma mekongi --- schistosomiasis --- Schistosomiasis --- Philippines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- S. japonicum zoonosis --- bovines --- schistosomiasis elimination --- snail control --- high-sensitivity diagnostics --- chemotherapy --- vaccine development --- health education --- sanitation

Biological Crystallization

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214037 9783039214044 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-404-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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For at least six hundred million years, life has been a fascinating laboratory of crystallization, referred to as biomineralization. During this huge lapse of time, many organisms from diverse phyla have developed the capability to precipitate various types of minerals, exploring distinctive pathways for building sophisticated structural architectures for different purposes. The Darwinian exploration was performed by trial and error, but the success in terms of complexity and efficiency is evident. Understanding the strategies that those organisms employ for regulating the nucleation, growth, and assembly of nanocrystals to build these sophisticated devices is an intellectual challenge and a source of inspiration in fields as diverse as materials science, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. However, “Biological Crystallization” is a broader topic that includes biomineralization, but also the laboratory crystallization of biological compounds such as macromolecules, carbohydrates, or lipids, and the synthesis and fabrication of biomimetic materials by different routes. This Special Issue collects 15 contributions ranging from biological and biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica-carbonate self-assembled materials to the crystallization of biological macromolecules. Special attention has been paid to the fundamental phenomena of crystallization (nucleation and growth), and the applications of the crystals in biomedicine, environment, and materials science.

Keywords

polymyxin resistance --- colistin resistance --- MCR-1 --- protein crystal nucleation --- thermodynamic and energetic approach --- protein ‘affinity’ to water --- solubility --- balance between crystal bond energy and destructive surface energies --- supersaturation dependence of the crystal nucleus size --- ependymin (EPN) --- ependymin-related protein (EPDR) --- mammalian ependymin-related protein (MERP) --- Campylobacter consisus --- Crohn’s disease --- circular dichroism --- protein crystallization --- Csep1p --- protein crystallization --- biochemical aspects of the protein crystal nucleation --- classical and two-step crystal nucleation mechanisms --- bond selection during protein crystallization --- equilibration between crystal bond and destructive energies --- protein crystal nucleation in pores --- crystallization in solution flow --- crystallization --- microseed matrix screening --- seeding --- optimization --- human carbonic anhydrase IX --- neutron protein crystallography --- microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) --- heavy metals --- wastewater treatment --- bioprecipitation --- calcium carbonate --- drug discovery --- education --- crystallization --- crystallography --- nucleation --- micro-crystals --- agarose --- ferritin --- lysozyme --- proteinase k --- insulin --- calcium carbonate --- {00.1} calcite --- lithium ions --- ultrasonic irradiation --- vaterite transformation --- adsorption --- calcein --- crystal violet --- dyes --- diffusion --- H3O+ --- reductants --- color change --- gradients --- biomorphs --- barium carbonate --- silica --- PCDA --- pyrrole --- droplet array --- crystal growth --- calcium carbonate --- high-throughput --- biomimetic crystallization --- biomineralization --- polyacrylic acid --- Cry protein crystals --- metallothioneins --- bioremediation --- heavy metal contamination --- nanoapatites --- graphene --- crystallization --- nanocomposites --- lysozyme --- L-tryptophan --- N-acetyl-D-glucosamine --- chitosan --- MTT assay --- GTL-16 cells --- Haloalkane dehalogenase --- halide-binding site --- random microseeding --- biomineralization --- biomimetic materials --- biomorphs --- calcium carbonate --- nanoapatites --- nucleation --- growth --- crystallization of macromolecules --- bioremediation --- materials science --- biomedicine

Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada

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ISBN: 9783039280049 9783039280056 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-005-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Canada continues to have a rich history of ground-breaking research in drug delivery within academic institutions, pharmaceutical industry and the biotechnology community.

Keywords

doxorubicin --- MG63 --- Vitamin D --- DOX-Vit D --- hypoxia-induced chemoresistance --- cisplatin --- polymeric micelle --- EGFR-targeted therapy --- STAT3 --- HIF-1 --- GE11 peptide --- pharmacological Inhibitors of HIF-1 and STAT3 --- combination therapy --- pharmacokinetics --- antibodies --- radiolabeling --- biodistribution --- mouse models --- oral formulation --- amphotericin B --- fungal infections --- parasitic infections --- developing world --- drug delivery --- liposomes --- drug delivery systems --- innovation --- lipid nanoparticles --- Metaplex --- triggered drug release --- liposomes --- ultrasound --- magnetic fields --- radiation --- oral delivery --- biological barriers --- co-delivery --- throughput --- sustained delivery --- phospholipid complex --- rosmarinic acid --- bioaccessibility --- dissolution --- TNO gastrointestinal model --- gastrointestinal simulator --- phytosterols --- tocopherols --- liposomes --- canola oil deodorizer distillate --- model orange juice --- virus --- plant --- bacteriophage --- phage display --- drug discovery --- encapsulation --- drug delivery --- blood-brain barrier --- intra-arterial chemotherapy --- malignant gliomas --- primary central nervous system lymphomas --- transdermal drug delivery --- Canada --- skin --- permeation enhancers --- oral, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma --- targeted therapies --- drug delivery systems --- nanoparticles --- controlled drug delivery --- circadian clock --- chronotherapy --- precision medicine --- cationic gemini surfactant --- melphalan --- inclusion complex --- ROESY NMR spectroscopy --- 3D spheroid --- drug-resistant melanoma --- liposome --- water miscible solvents --- remote loading --- staurosporine --- cancer --- gambogic acid --- loading gradients --- mefloquine --- child friendly formulation --- blood-brain barrier (BBB) --- drug delivery --- transient modulation --- HAV6 cadherin peptide --- adenanthin --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- medulloblastoma --- drug delivery --- pharmaceutics --- drug development --- formulation and dosage form development --- translational research --- biologicals --- small molecules --- clinical trials --- pharmacokinetics --- medical devices --- route of administration --- nifedipine --- emulsion --- flavonoids --- topical formulation --- quercetin --- photostabilizers

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