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Accuracy of GNSS Methods

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ISBN: 9781789849257 9781789849264 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75424 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Following the GPS, new GNSS techniques are emerging today. Various surveying and processing methods are available for the analysis of GNSS data. Equipment and software are also varied. The orbit quality, controlled by the system designer, and the IGS are continuously improved. The user is mainly interested in the quality of position and of the deformation rates produced by the GNSS. Hence, research needs to guide the user in terms of selecting the best combination of the available methods and instrumentation to produce the desired accuracy. This book reviews the current available accuracy obtainable using the GNSS methods. In fact, the main aim of this book is to make an impact on young researchers so that they keep updating the accuracy of GNSS for future generations.

Soil Moisture

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ISBN: 9781789851038 9781789851045 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73742 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book is aimed at the majority of audiences who need to rapidly obtain a concise overview of soil moisture measurement and management. Many existing soil moisture textbooks cater for a traditional market where readers rely on years of study presented in a slender discipline. The evolution of segmental schemes has meant that soil moisture is now often included as a part of broad-based soil science programs. For those opting to specialise in soil moisture, this is a good book to choose. This book will be very useful to students, researchers and other readers who do not hold a traditional scientific background, such as those studying geography, environment science, ecology and agriculture. This book provides a concise overview of soil moisture knowledge.

Advanced Remote Sensing Technology for Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications, Tsunami Disasters, and Infrastructure

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ISBN: 9781789856170 9781789856187 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78525 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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The advance in space machineries has created a novel technology for observing and monitoring the Earth from space. Most earth observation remote sensing considerations focus on using conventional image processing algorithms or classic edge detection tools. Nevertheless, these techniques do not implement modern physics, applied mathematics, signal communication, remote sensing data, and innovative space technologies. This book provides readers with methods to comprehend how to monitor coastal environments, disaster areas, and infrastructure from space with advanced talent remote sensing technology to bridge the gaps between modern space technology, image processing algorithms, mathematical models and the critical issue of the coastal and infrastructure investigations.

Metals in Soil - Contamination and Remediation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781789857757 9781789857764 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77986 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
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The anthropogenic input of metals into the atmosphere is estimated to be one-to-three orders of magnitude higher than natural fluxes. Soil acts as the primary sink for anthropogenic metals among the environmental spheres. Most metals show indefinite persistence in the ecosphere due to resistance against microbial or chemical-assisted degradation. This edited book is an attempt to compile reviews and case studies from different researchers focusing on different aspects of soil contamination by metals and its subsequent remediation. The book's contents will be useful for researchers and strategists interested in the environmental aspects of soil contamination.

Renewable Geothermal Energy Explorations

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ISBN: 9781789846089 9781789846096 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76275 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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The geothermal resources of the Earth are enormous. The resource is considered to be an environmentally friendly clean energy source that could significantly contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions when utilized for electrical power generation or direct heating applications. The source of geothermal energy is the continuous heat energy flux flowing from the interior of the Earth toward its surface. Geothermal energy resources vary geographically, depending on the depth and temperature of the resource, the rock chemical composition, and the abundance of ground water. This book is the result of contributions from several experts and researchers worldwide. The introductory chapter highlights the principles of geothermal power generation using LEGE-ORC technology and presents a summary of the following book chapters. Due to its important utilization and future prospects, various interesting topics of research related to geothermal energy explorations are covered in this book. It is hoped that the book will become a useful source of information and basis for extended research for researchers, academics, policy makers, and practitioners in the area of renewable geothermal energy explorations.

Turbulence and Related Phenomena

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ISBN: 9781838800178 9781838800185 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74099 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
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This book presents some of the most important results concerning atmospheric turbulence and some of its effects on the propagation of a light beam. Atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the beam and still must be understood and modelized for applications in photonics or environmental metrology. The future of free-space optical (FSO) communication through atmospheric turbulence channels is especially of interest and research on high bit-rate communications attracts more and more interest as an alternative to radio links because of bandwidth, spectrum, and security issues. Some of the current solutions for improving FSO communications are presented in this book.

Climate Change and Global Warming

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ISBN: 9781789858136 9781789858143 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74882 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Strong evidence has proved that the climate is changing and the world is becoming warmer by various measures. It is now generally accepted that human activities are changing the configuration of our ecosystem. Most likely, further changes and negative influences are unavoidable. Nevertheless, we can prevent the dominant impacts of climate change, so that life remains manageable. Meanwhile, misperceptions of the solutions are increasing. The overall purpose of this book is to introduce the concept of climate change and its effects within the context of sustainable development. This book, Climate Change and Global Warming, brings together the engineers, scientists, socialists and policymakers of the world to critically look at various aspects of climate change, and it is an attempt to look at the facts.

Understanding of Atmospheric Systems with Efficient Numerical Methods for Observation and Prediction

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781838801113 9781838801120 9781838806347 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76493 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology
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Although the technology of observation and prediction of atmospheric systems draws upon many common fields, until now the interrelatedness and interdisciplinary nature of these research fields have scarcely been discussed in one volume containing fundamental theories, numerical methods, and operational application results. This is a book to provide in-depth explorations of the numerical methods developed to better understand atmospheric systems, which are introduced in eight chapters. Chapter 1 presents an efficient algorithm for tropical cyclone center determination by using satellite imagery. Chapter 2 aims to identify atmospheric systems with a new polarization remote sensing method. Chapters 3-8 place emphasis on enhancing the performance of numerical models in the prediction of atmospheric systems that should be valuable for researchers and forecasters.

Satellite Information Classification and Interpretation

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ISBN: 9781838805661 9781838805678 9781838807931 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77202 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Without a doubt, understanding what we must do to save our home, our planet, and how we are to do it is of the gravest importance for the present generation and the next. Clearly, advances won through space technology and applications of the same to the study of Earth play an excellent and vital role in classification and interpretation of the processes taking place on the Earth and in space. Today, space technology helps us understand Earth and how we can support and manage its state, to keep it in working condition under the current circumstances.How can we do this? Obviously, we must use appropriate methods and instruments to collect the information we need. In the meantime, it is necessary to develop systems to analyze and process the data collected.

Applied Geophysics with Case Studies on Environmental, Exploration and Engineering Geophysics

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ISBN: 9781838807405 9781838807412 9781838807429 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78490 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This book provides a general introduction to the most important methods of applied geophysics with a variety of case studies. These methods represent a primary tool for investigation of the subsurface and are applicable to a very wide range of problems. Applied geophysics is based on physics principles that collect and interpret data on subsurface conditions for practical purposes, including oil and gas exploration, mineral prospecting, geothermal exploration, groundwater exploration, engineering applications, archeological interests, and environmental concerns. The depth of investigation into applied geophysics is shallow, typically from the ground surface to several kilometers deep, where economic, cultural, engineering, or environmental concerns often arise. Applied geophysics uses almost all of the current geophysical methods, including electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic, gravimetric, geothermal, seismic, seismoelectric, magnetotelluric, nuclear, and radioactive methods. In applied geophysics, geophysicists are usually required to have a good understanding of math and physics principles, knowledge of geology and computer skills, and hands-on experience of electronic instruments. A geophysicist's routine job includes survey designs, data acquisition, data processing, and data interpretation with detailed explanation of the study. Applied geophysics consists of three main subject and interest areas, which are exploration geophysics, engineering geophysics, and environmental geophysics.

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