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Advanced Evapotranspiration Methods and Applications

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ISBN: 9781789858112 9781789858129 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73720 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Since the beginning of its formation approximately three billion years ago, the hydrosphere - as an envelope of the terrestrial ellipsoid - has remained constant from a quantitative point of view. The hydrosphere modifies only the ratio of the stretches of the planetary ocean and land, including the proportion of the states of water aggregation: gaseous, liquid, and solid.The hydrological cycle transports only a portion of the hydrosphere, repeats itself annually, and presents itself as a huge planetary plant that for billions of years has operated uninterruptedly on the basis of solar energy and gravity, providing freshwater resources for the maintenance and perpetuation of life beyond the planetary ocean.Water resources are highly influenced by the hydrologic cycle and play a role in agricultural economic development. However, as is shown by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the phenomena of changing climate and land use are set to exacerbate an already serious situation of water supply for various users. In this context, scientific investigations into the issue of the sustainable use of water are timely and important. Improvement of water management involves the accurate estimation of consumptive uses. The purpose of this book is to show the achievements of scientists and academicians all over the world in promoting and sharing new issues on various topics related to evapotranspiration.

Groundwater - Resource Characterisation and Management Aspects

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ISBN: 9781838805142 9781838805159 9781838807115 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73345 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book covers aspects of groundwater resource characterisation and management. The inherent heterogeneous and isotropic nature of aquifers coupled with the unpredictable effects of climate change calls for continuous improvement and understanding of hydrogeology site characterisation techniques in theory and application to better understand and manage groundwater. We believe that this book will be useful for various professionals involved in groundwater-related work to improve the theoretical and practical understanding of hydrogeology site characterisation techniques and groundwater resource management skills.

Topics in Hydrometerology

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ISBN: 9781838805609 9781838805616 9781838807719 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75854 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Public Health
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The field of hydrometeorology bridges across both meteorology and hydrology. In this book, multiple experts present their work on various topics that fall under the purview of hydrometeorology. The chapters will provide readers with some of the latest developments and applications across different regions of the world and will motivate the audience to investigate other areas in hydrometeorology.

Accuracy of GNSS Methods

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ISBN: 9781789849257 9781789849264 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75424 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Following the GPS, new GNSS techniques are emerging today. Various surveying and processing methods are available for the analysis of GNSS data. Equipment and software are also varied. The orbit quality, controlled by the system designer, and the IGS are continuously improved. The user is mainly interested in the quality of position and of the deformation rates produced by the GNSS. Hence, research needs to guide the user in terms of selecting the best combination of the available methods and instrumentation to produce the desired accuracy. This book reviews the current available accuracy obtainable using the GNSS methods. In fact, the main aim of this book is to make an impact on young researchers so that they keep updating the accuracy of GNSS for future generations.

Soil Moisture

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ISBN: 9781789851038 9781789851045 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73742 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book is aimed at the majority of audiences who need to rapidly obtain a concise overview of soil moisture measurement and management. Many existing soil moisture textbooks cater for a traditional market where readers rely on years of study presented in a slender discipline. The evolution of segmental schemes has meant that soil moisture is now often included as a part of broad-based soil science programs. For those opting to specialise in soil moisture, this is a good book to choose. This book will be very useful to students, researchers and other readers who do not hold a traditional scientific background, such as those studying geography, environment science, ecology and agriculture. This book provides a concise overview of soil moisture knowledge.

Advanced Remote Sensing Technology for Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications, Tsunami Disasters, and Infrastructure

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ISBN: 9781789856170 9781789856187 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78525 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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The advance in space machineries has created a novel technology for observing and monitoring the Earth from space. Most earth observation remote sensing considerations focus on using conventional image processing algorithms or classic edge detection tools. Nevertheless, these techniques do not implement modern physics, applied mathematics, signal communication, remote sensing data, and innovative space technologies. This book provides readers with methods to comprehend how to monitor coastal environments, disaster areas, and infrastructure from space with advanced talent remote sensing technology to bridge the gaps between modern space technology, image processing algorithms, mathematical models and the critical issue of the coastal and infrastructure investigations.

Metals in Soil - Contamination and Remediation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781789857757 9781789857764 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77986 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
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The anthropogenic input of metals into the atmosphere is estimated to be one-to-three orders of magnitude higher than natural fluxes. Soil acts as the primary sink for anthropogenic metals among the environmental spheres. Most metals show indefinite persistence in the ecosphere due to resistance against microbial or chemical-assisted degradation. This edited book is an attempt to compile reviews and case studies from different researchers focusing on different aspects of soil contamination by metals and its subsequent remediation. The book's contents will be useful for researchers and strategists interested in the environmental aspects of soil contamination.

Renewable Geothermal Energy Explorations

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ISBN: 9781789846089 9781789846096 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76275 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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The geothermal resources of the Earth are enormous. The resource is considered to be an environmentally friendly clean energy source that could significantly contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions when utilized for electrical power generation or direct heating applications. The source of geothermal energy is the continuous heat energy flux flowing from the interior of the Earth toward its surface. Geothermal energy resources vary geographically, depending on the depth and temperature of the resource, the rock chemical composition, and the abundance of ground water. This book is the result of contributions from several experts and researchers worldwide. The introductory chapter highlights the principles of geothermal power generation using LEGE-ORC technology and presents a summary of the following book chapters. Due to its important utilization and future prospects, various interesting topics of research related to geothermal energy explorations are covered in this book. It is hoped that the book will become a useful source of information and basis for extended research for researchers, academics, policy makers, and practitioners in the area of renewable geothermal energy explorations.

Turbulence and Related Phenomena

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ISBN: 9781838800178 9781838800185 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74099 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
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This book presents some of the most important results concerning atmospheric turbulence and some of its effects on the propagation of a light beam. Atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the beam and still must be understood and modelized for applications in photonics or environmental metrology. The future of free-space optical (FSO) communication through atmospheric turbulence channels is especially of interest and research on high bit-rate communications attracts more and more interest as an alternative to radio links because of bandwidth, spectrum, and security issues. Some of the current solutions for improving FSO communications are presented in this book.

Climate Change and Global Warming

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ISBN: 9781789858136 9781789858143 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74882 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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Strong evidence has proved that the climate is changing and the world is becoming warmer by various measures. It is now generally accepted that human activities are changing the configuration of our ecosystem. Most likely, further changes and negative influences are unavoidable. Nevertheless, we can prevent the dominant impacts of climate change, so that life remains manageable. Meanwhile, misperceptions of the solutions are increasing. The overall purpose of this book is to introduce the concept of climate change and its effects within the context of sustainable development. This book, Climate Change and Global Warming, brings together the engineers, scientists, socialists and policymakers of the world to critically look at various aspects of climate change, and it is an attempt to look at the facts.

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