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Chemical Vapor Deposition for Nanotechnology

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ISBN: 9781789849608 9781789849615 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73342 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have played a major role in the development of modern technology, and the rise of nanotechnology has further increased their importance, thanks to techniques such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and vapor liquid solid growth, which are able to control the growth process at the nanoscale. This book aims to contribute to the knowledge of recent developments in CVD technology and its applications. To this aim, important process innovations, such as spatial ALD, direct liquid injection CVD, and electron cyclotron resonance CVD, are presented. Moreover, some of the most recent applications of CVD techniques for the growth of nanomaterials, including graphene, nanofibers, and diamond-like carbon, are described in the book.

Gold Nanoparticles - Reaching New Heights

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ISBN: 9781789849981 9781789849578 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73366 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Gold Nanoparticles - Reaching New Heights contains recent research on the preparation, characterization, fabrication, and potential of optical and biological applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). It is promising novel research that has received a lot of interest over the last few decades. It covers advanced topics on optical, physical, medicinal, and biological applications of AuNPs. Development of green nanotechnology is generating the interest of researchers towards the synthesis of eco-friendly, safe, non-toxic applications, which can be used for manufacture at a large scale. These are simple, cost-effective, stable, enduring, and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis applications to obtain the self-assembly of AuNPs. This potentially unique work offers various approaches to R&D with AuNP materials in aqueous or non-aqueous phases through fully modified or unmodified states as hybrids. Nanotechnology and nanoscience can regulate substances at the nanoscale, and nanodimension substances of a few nanometers allow us to control the novel practical applications of AuNPs. This book presents an overview of current AuNP fundamental and substantial applications and research worldwide, which investigates the techniques of AuNP preparation, various types of characterization, and possible applications related to AuNP research. It is an important book for research organizations, government research centers, academic libraries, and R&D groups interested in recent research and development of AuNPs.

Nanowires - Synthesis, Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9781789859058 9781789859065 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75337 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Nanowires are attracting wide scientific interest due to the unique properties associated with their one-dimensional geometry. Developments in the understanding of the fundamental principles of the nanowire growth mechanisms and mastering functionalization provide tools to control crystal structure, morphology, and the interactions at the material interface, and create characteristics that are superior to those of planar geometries. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the most important developments in the field of nanowires, starting from their synthesis, discussing properties, and finalizing with nanowire applications. The book consists of two parts: the first is devoted to the synthesis of nanowires and characterization, and the second investigates the properties of nanowires and their applications in future devices.

Liquid Crystals - Self-Organized Soft Functional Materials for Advanced Applications

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ISBN: 9781789848847 9781789848854 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74875 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Liquid Crystals - Self-Organized Soft Functional Materials for Advanced Applications is focused on both theoretical models and experimental results, pointing out the chemical and physical properties (thermodynamics, electro-optic switching behavior, and non-linear optic phenomena) of liquid crystals used in a wide range of devices. In this respect, the chapters cover the following topics: chemical structure and phase transitions in bent-core liquid crystals, phase and structural behavior of liquid crystals used to align carbon nanotubes, molecular alignment, and photorefractive effect in the ferroelectric phase, which has the potential to be used as transistors, for image storage, and in optical signal processing. It is expected that the book will be of interest to researchers in academia and industries, as well as advanced students.

Density Functional Theory

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ISBN: 9781789851670 9781789851687 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76822 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Density Functional Theory (or DFT for short) is a potent methodology useful for calculating and understanding the molecular and electronic structure of atoms, molecules, clusters, and solids. Its use relies not only in the ability to calculate the molecular properties of the species of interest but also provides interesting concepts that allow a better comprehension of the chemical reactivity of the studied systems. This book represents an attempt to present examples on the utility of DFT for the understanding of the chemical reactivity through descriptors that constitute the basis of the so called Conceptual DFT (sometimes also named as Chemical Reactivity Theory) as well as the application of the theory and its related computational procedures in the determination of the molecular properties of different systems of academic and industrial interest.

Transparent Conducting Films

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ISBN: 9781838804947 9781838804954 9781838809874 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72957 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book presents a significant class of materials that has recently drawn increasing interest in applications of active devices and as a critical component in any structure that requires both electrical connectivity and optical transparency. Despite their technological importance and relatively long history of utilization, our understanding of the existing set of transparent conduction oxide (TCO) material is only now receiving the kind of combined fundamental/experimental material research attention that will inevitably lead to new material discoveries and novel applications. Overall, it is clear that transparent conducting films and transparent conductors are a vibrant field that is advancing rapidly across an ever-broadening spectrum of applications. We hope this book will provide a valuable reference for those interested in the topic and stimulate additional development of new TCO materials and their applications.

High Precision X-Ray Measurements

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ISBN: 9783039213177 9783039213184 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-318-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Since their discovery in 1895, the detection of X-rays has had a strong impact on and various applications in several fields of science and human life. Impressive efforts have been made to develop new types of detectors and new techniques, aiming to obtain higher precision both in terms of energy and position. Depending on the applications, solid state detectors, microcalorimeters, and various types of spectrometers currently serve as the best options for spectroscopic and imaging detectors. Recent advancements in micron and meV precision have opened the door for groundbreaking applications in fundamental physics, medical science, astrophysics, cultural heritage, and several other fields. The aim of this Special Issue is to compile an overview, from different communities and research fields, of the most recent developments in X-ray detection and their possible impacts in various sectors, such as in exotic atom measurements, quantum physics studies, XRF, XES, EXAFS, plasma emission spectroscopy, monochromators, synchrotron radiation, telescopes, and space engineering. All the papers included in this Special Issue contribute to emphasizing the importance of X-ray detection in a very broad range of physics topics; most of these topics are covered by the published works, and several others are mentioned in the paper references, providing an interesting and very useful synopsis, from a variety of different communities and research fields, of the most recent developments in X-ray detection and their impact in fundamental research and societal applications.

Clean Energy and Fuel (Hydrogen) Storage

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ISBN: 9783039216307 9783039216314 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-631-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Clean energy and fuel storage are often required for both stationary and automotive applications. Some of these clean energy and fuel storage technologies currently under extensive research and development include hydrogen storage, direct electric storage, mechanical energy storage, solar–thermal energy storage, electrochemical (batteries and supercapacitors), and thermochemical storage. The gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity, energy storage density, power output, operating temperature and pressure, cycle life, recyclability, and cost of clean energy or fuel storage are some of the factors that govern efficient energy and fuel storage technologies for potential deployment in energy harvesting (solar and wind farms) stations and onboard vehicular transportation. This Special Issue thus serves the need for promoting exploratory research and development on clean energy and fuel storage technologies while addressing their challenges to practical and sustainable infrastructures.

Keywords

dye-sensitized solar cells --- carbon materials --- Ag nanoparticles --- freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays --- gas turbine engine --- lean direct injection --- four-point --- low emissions combustion --- carbonate gas reservoirs --- water invasion --- recovery factor --- aquifer size --- production rate --- hydrogen storage --- complex hydrides --- nanocatalyst --- LiNH2 --- MgH2 --- ball milling --- Li-ion batteries --- nanocomposite materials --- cathode --- anode --- binder --- separator --- ionic liquid --- vertically oriented graphene --- electrical double layers --- charge density --- capacitance --- gas storage --- material science --- rock permeability --- synthetic rock salt testing --- Klinkenberg method --- hydrogen storage systems --- hydrogen absorption --- thermochemical energy storage --- metal hydride --- magnetism --- heat transfer enhancement --- Power to Liquid --- Fischer–Tropsch --- dynamic modeling --- lab-scale --- lithium-ion batteries --- simplified electrochemical model --- state of charge estimator --- extended kalman filter --- hot summer and cold winter area --- PCM roof --- comprehensive incremental benefit --- conjugate phase change heat transfer --- lattice Boltzmann method --- large-scale wind farm --- auxiliary services compensation --- battery energy storage system --- optimal capacity --- equivalent loss of cycle life --- hydrogen storage --- porous media --- bacterial sulfate reduction --- methanogenesis --- gas loss --- diffusion --- reactive transport modeling --- PHREEQC --- energy discharge --- bubbles burst --- bubbles transportation --- crystal growth rates --- undercooling --- salt cavern --- leaching tubing --- flutter instability --- flow-induced vibration --- internal and reverse external axial flows --- thermal energy storage (TES) --- slag --- regenerator --- concentrated solar power (CSP) --- quality function deployment (QFD) --- failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) --- thermal energy storage --- electrochemical energy storage --- hydrogen energy storage --- salt cavern energy storage

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2019 (8)