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Vignettes in Patient Safety - Volume 4

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ISBN: 9781839622014 9781839622021 9781839622038 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75373 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Medical errors contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality across our healthcare institutions. Due to the increasing complexity of the modern medical practice, a perfect storm of regulatory, market, social, and technical factors, and other competing priorities, created an environment that is primed for patient safety lapses. The spectrum of contributing variables - ranging from minor errors that subsequently escalate, poor communication, and protocol/process non-compliance (just to name a few) - is extensive and solutions are only recently being described. As such, there is a growing body of research and experiences that can help provide an organized framework - based on best practices and evidence-based medical principles - for healthcare organizations to develop, implement, and embrace. Based on the tremendous interest in the initial three volumes of our Vignettes in Patient Safety series, this fourth volume follows a similar model of outlining a patient safety case based on experiences that many clinicians can relate to, and then discusses various factors that may have contributed to a medical error, complication, and/or poor outcome. Building on a problem-based clinical vignette, each chapter then outlines an evidence-based approach to present any related literature, pertinent evidence, and potential contributing factors and solutions to common patient safety occurrences. By focusing on some of the best practices, structured experiences, and objective approaches to medical error genesis, the authors and editors hopefully can lend some insights into how we can make healthcare encounters for all patients, across all settings, better and safer.

Palliative Care

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ISBN: 9781789840759 9781789840766 9781839621956 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77739 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Palliative care is one of the most important factors in the fight against chronic diseases. It begins from the moment the patient is diagnosed, continues with curative treatment until death, and ends with care that supports the patient's family and other caregivers during the postmortem mourning process. In all these stages it is very important to improve the quality of life in patients, to relieve symptoms, and to support patients and their relatives in a dignified manner. This book includes basic information about palliative care, management of patient symptoms, support suggestions for psychological and social problems, needs of patients and their families, and how palliative care is handled in different countries. Written for healthcare professionals, students, and all interested readers, this book provides important information that can be used to improve the quality of life of patients as well as that of their families.

International Handbook of Health Literacy

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781447344520 9781447344513 9781447344537 Year: Pages: 764 Language: English
Publisher: Policy Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 11:21:03
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Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. Health literacy addresses a range of social dimensions of health, including knowledge, navigation and communication, as well as individual and organizational skills for accessing, understanding, evaluating and using information. Particularly over the past decade, health literacy has globally become a major public health concern as an asset for promoting health, wellbeing and sustainable development.

The Relevance of Hygiene to Health in Developing Countries

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789858037 9781789858044 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72024 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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There are 17 comprehensive and detailed Sustainable Development Goals, which are all interlinked. Although access to water, sanitation, and hygiene is a human right, billions of people in developing countries are still faced with daily challenges accessing even the most basic of services, specifically the poor and vulnerable in communities. Hygiene is an important aspect for women/girls to access the economic, educational, and social opportunities they deserve. Proper hygiene removes disease as a barrier for equality, economic growth, and more. The role of hygiene in water, sanitation, and infections must be addressed from both scientific and social perspectives. This book provides the reader with an analysis of hygiene behaviors and practices and provides evidence-based examples in a number of developing countries.

Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Best Buys, Wasted Buys and Contestable Buys

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781783748631 9781783748655 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0195 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-13 14:55:14
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, contributing to over 73% of all deaths annually. Each day NCDs cause more than 100,000 deaths, 80% of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. NCDs, however, are largely preventable, and a great deal of technical knowledge exists about how to prevent and manage them. Why, then, have we, as a global community, not been more successful at reducing this NCD burden? Does a universal problem not have a universal solution?Created by an international consortium of experts, this informative and accessible book provides practical guidelines, key learning points, and dynamic, real-world case studies to aid NCD program managers, policy officers and decision-makers in low- and middle-income countries, so that they can assess interventions for the prevention and control of NCDs.The book was commissioned by the Prince Mahidol Award Conference (PMAC), an annual international conference centred on policy of global significance related to public health. Non-Communicable Disease Prevention: Best Buys, Wasted Buys and Contestable Buys emphasises the importance of context in NCD control and prevention, arguing that the success of an intervention lies in an ability to respond to local needs and environments. The book comprises ten chapters, which collectively explore the reasons behind, and strategies for, preventing and managing the NCD burden. It spans key themes such as political economy, the transferability of economic evidence, the role of cross-sectoral policies, the importance of deliberative processes, and health technology assessment.This book is written for the benefit of the global health community, and is primarily targeted at those individuals who are involved in NCD programs. This book will also be of interest to NCD champions, policy advocates, and educators spearheading the movement for increased visiblity of NCDs.

The Ethics of Vaccination

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ISBN: 9783030020675 Year: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02068-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-19 11:21:22
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This open access book discusses individual, collective, and institutional responsibilities with regard to vaccination from the perspective of philosophy and public health ethics. It addresses the issue of what it means for a collective to be morally responsible for the realisation of herd immunity and what the implications of collective responsibility are for individual and institutional responsibilities. The first chapter introduces some key concepts in the vaccination debate, such as ‘herd immunity’, ‘public goods’, and ‘vaccine refusal’; and explains why failure to vaccinate raises certain ethical issues. The second chapter analyses, from a philosophical perspective, the relationship between individual, collective, and institutional responsibilities with regard to the realisation of herd immunity. The third chapter is about the principle of least restrictive alternative in public health ethics and its implications for vaccination policies. Finally, the fourth chapter presents an ethical argument for unqualified compulsory vaccination, i.e. for compulsory vaccination that does not allow for any conscientious objection. The book would appeal both philosophers interested in public health ethics and the general public interested in the philosophical underpinning of different arguments about our moral obligations with regard to vaccination.

Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783030023188 Year: Pages: 481 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02318-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:12
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This open access book identifies and discusses biodiversity’s contribution to physical, mental and spiritual health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the book identifies the implications of this relationship for nature conservation, public health, landscape architecture and urban planning – and considers the opportunities of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation. This transdisciplinary book will attract a wide audience interested in biodiversity, ecology, resource management, public health, psychology, urban planning, and landscape architecture. The emphasis is on multiple human health benefits from biodiversity - in particular with respect to the increasing challenge of climate change. This makes the book unique to other books that focus either on biodiversity and physical health or natural environments and mental wellbeing. The book is written as a definitive ‘go-to’ book for those who are new to the field of biodiversity and health.

Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211203 9783039211210 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-121-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Food insecurity is a complex ‘wicked’ problem that results from a range of unstable and uncertain physical, social, cultural and economic factors that limits access to nutritious food. Globally, 800 million people are under-nourished, and around 2 billion are overweight/obese or have micronutrient deficiency. These populations are largely positioned in developing countries where disease burden is high and impacts health budgets and productivity. Similarly developed countries, cities and neighbourhoods are experiencing a greater emergence of vulnerable populations. This is in part explained by the change in the food production and manufacturing, the retraction in economic climates, the increase in food price, and in some regions reduced food availability and access.Vulnerable groups include but are not limited to migrant populations, Indigenous people, elderly, pregnant women, those with disability, homeless, young children and youth. Poor nutrition at significant periods of growth and development and during life impact long term health outcomes increasing non-communicable disease prevalence, health cost and reducing economic productivity.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- feeding practices --- infant feeding --- nutrition --- malnutrition --- pediatrics --- primary health care --- low-income population --- popular restaurant --- lunch --- energy density --- nutrition --- food security --- HFIAS --- double burden of malnutrition --- child stunting --- Indonesia --- emergency food assistance --- food pantry --- food insecurity --- dietary patterns --- dietary quality --- nutrition --- knowledge --- refugees --- children --- school intervention --- Lebanon --- rural populations --- food assistance --- low-income --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- socioeconomics --- Obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- refugee --- women --- Palestine --- consumption of fruits and vegetables --- low-income undergraduate students --- Student Assistance Program --- adiposity markers --- obesity --- fat mass --- abdominal obesity --- adolescent health --- school performance --- Orang Asli --- food insecurity --- Malaysia --- challenges --- in-depth interview --- fruit and vegetables --- rural children --- Social Cognitive Theory --- undernutrition --- food security --- nutrition security --- village chickens --- livestock --- animal-source food --- Tanzania --- sub-Saharan Africa --- resource-poor settings --- children --- welfare home --- body image --- obesity --- BMI-for-age --- food security --- self-esteem --- self-efficacy --- food security --- public health --- place-based --- co-design --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- charitable food sector --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- nutrition education --- training --- tertiary education --- n/a

Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216444 9783039216451 Year: Pages: 526 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-645-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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International migration, particularly to Europe, has increased in the last few decades, making research on aspects of this phenomenon, including numbers, challenges, and successes, particularly vital. This Special Issue highlights this necessary and relevant area of research. It presents 37 articles including studies on diverse topics relating to the health of refugees and migrants. Most articles (28) present studies focusing on European host countries. The focus on Europe is justified if we take into consideration the increased number of refugees and migrants who have come to Europe in recent years. However, there are also articles which present studies from countries in other continents. The topics discussed in the Issue include healthcare utilization, infectious diseases, mother and child health, mental health, and chronic diseases. Finding from the included articles indicate that further development of guidelines and policies at both local and international levels is needed. Priorities must be set by encouraging and funding in-depth research that aims to evaluate the impact of existing policies and interventions. Such research will help us formulate recommendations for the development of strategies and approaches that improve and strengthen the integration of migrants and refugees into the host countries.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- complementary feeding --- Chinese --- immigrant mothers --- infant --- obesity --- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) --- pain --- pain perception --- understanding of illness --- culture --- family-oriented societies --- refugee and migrant women --- sexual and reproductive health --- training --- knowledge --- confidence --- health care professionals --- emergency care --- triage --- healthcare system strengthening --- migrant health --- North Korean refugees --- depression --- early trauma --- negative automatic thoughts --- path analysis --- ambulance --- economic recession --- emergency medical service --- Greece --- primary healthcare system --- refugee --- triage --- public health --- asylum seeker --- Electronic Health Insurance Card --- refugee --- Germany --- refugee health --- asylum seekers --- migrants --- infectious diseases --- vaccination --- Italy --- refugee and migrant (R&M) health --- refugee crisis --- healthcare --- European Union (EU) --- migrant health --- preparedness --- communicable diseases --- tuberculosis --- LTBI --- refugee --- asylum --- infection --- IGRA --- infectious diseases --- migrant --- asylum seekers --- psychiatric emergency services --- involuntary treatment --- psychiatric hospitalization --- migrants --- sexual health --- help-seeking behavior --- systematic review --- aggression --- emergency department --- workplace violence --- migrants --- failed asylum seekers --- psychiatric emergency services --- psychiatric hospitalisation --- acute stress --- multidimensional intercultural training acculturation model (MITA) --- intercultural competence --- traumatic events --- mental health --- Middle Eastern refugee adolescents --- migration --- health --- infection --- linkage --- care --- sexual and reproductive health --- adolescent --- refugee --- migrant --- young women --- knowledge --- access --- experiences --- systematic review --- Africa --- obesity --- immigration --- education --- inequalities --- health survey --- refugee --- adolescent --- risk factor --- protective factor --- HIV --- AIDS --- stigma --- refugees --- migrants --- economic crisis --- Greece --- migration --- National Health System --- refugee --- Southeast Europe --- immigrant --- healthcare --- HBV --- CHB --- screening --- vaccination --- refugees --- migrants --- pregnancy --- migration --- refugees --- health care provision --- reception center --- sexual violence --- migrants --- refugees --- asylum seekers --- applicants for international protection --- Europe --- prevalence --- hepatitis C --- screening --- migrants --- viral hepatitis elimination --- European Union --- North African --- immigration --- health care --- emergency department --- disparities --- VPD --- immunisation strategies --- health systems --- refugees --- migrants --- cost effectiveness --- healthcare --- migration --- refugee --- asylum seeker --- medical service --- migrant --- medical care --- doctor --- Europe --- Germany --- fruit --- vegetable --- immigrant --- Portuguese --- health --- refugees women --- HIV --- mental health --- stigma --- discrimination --- access to care --- disease prevention --- public health --- stigma --- refugees --- migrants --- MMR vaccination --- measles --- vaccine hesitancy --- autism --- Rinkeby --- Tensta --- immigrants --- Polish --- religiosity --- lifestyle behavior --- smoking --- alcohol consumption --- physical activity --- overweight --- obesity --- migrant populations --- schistosomiasis/schistosoma --- strongyloidiasis/strongyloides --- screening/diagnosis --- treatment --- public health --- GRADE --- refugee --- health --- migration --- chronic disease --- infectious disease --- n/a

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210541 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

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