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Poisoning in the Modern World - New Tricks for an Old Dog?

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ISBN: 9781838807856 9781838807863 9781838807870 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73906 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Over 400 years ago, Swiss alchemist and physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) cited: ""All substances are poisons; there is none that is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy."" This is often condensed to: ""The dose makes the poison."" So, why are we overtly anxious about intoxications?In fact, poisons became a global problem with the industrial revolution. Pesticides, asbestos, occupational chemicals, air pollution, and heavy metal toxicity maintain high priority worldwide, especially in developing countries. Children between 0 and 5 years old are the most vulnerable to both acute and chronic poisonings, while older adults suffer from the chronic effects of chemicals. This book aims to raise awareness about the challenges of poisons, to help clinicians understand current issues in toxicology.

Cytotoxicity - Definition, Identification, and Cytotoxic Compounds

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ISBN: 9781789847543 9781789847550 9781839622861 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77899 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Compensating for cytotoxicity in the multicellular organism by a certain level of cellular proliferation is the primary aim of homeostasis. In addition, the loss of cellular proliferation control (tumorigenesis) is at least as important as cytotoxicity, however, it is a contrasting trauma. With the disruption of the delicate balance between cytotoxicity and proliferation, confrontation with cancer can inevitably occur. This book presents important information pertaining to the molecular control of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation as they relate to cancer. It is designed for students and researchers studying cytotoxicity and its control.

Mycotoxins - Impact and Management Strategies

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ISBN: 9781838818463 9781838818470 9781838818487 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72353 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This Edited Volume Mycotoxins - Impact and Management Strategies is a collection of reviewed and relevant research chapters, offering a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the field of Mycotoxicology. The book comprises of single chapters authored by various researchers and edited by an expert active in this research area. This book is divided into three sections. Section 1 consists of one chapter that gives an overview of the socioeconomic impact of mycotoxins. Section 2 has five chapters that address the prevention and control of aflatoxins both at pre- and post-harvest stages. Section 3 has two chapters that deal with health impact and control in the poultry industry. This publication aims at providing a thorough overview of the latest research efforts in the field and opens new possible research paths for further novel developments in addressing the problem of mycotoxins.

Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants

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ISBN: 9781838806101 9781838806118 9781838808747 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78419 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Pharmacognosy is a term derived from the Greek words for drug (pharmakon) and knowledge (gnosis). It is a field of study within Chemistry focused on natural products isolated from different sources and their biological activities. Research on natural products began more than a hundred years ago and has continued up to now with a plethora of research groups discovering new ideas and novel active constituents. This book compiles the latest research in the field and will be of interest to scientists, researchers, and students.

Resveratrol - Adding Life to Years, Not Adding Years to Life

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ISBN: 9781789849943 9781789849950 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74428 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book intends to strike a balance between developments in research and the fact that researchers must absorb and link to scientific advances with clinical practice so that the management of diseases can be based on sound physiological concepts. This book addresses several controversial issues regarding a natural molecule with fascinating pharmacological and therapeutic effects. The book contains three sections: Section 1: Pharmacology and Therapeutic Applications of Resveratrol; Section 2: Bioavailability, Metabolism, and Mode of Action of Resveratrol; Section 3: Resveratrol and Its Role in Chronic and Degenerative Diseases. Does it Add Life to Years or Years to Life? It is our hope that this book will motivate readers to approach the evidence on the use resveratrol and thereby spark an interest in making further contributions to the current scientific debate and treatment development efforts.

Medicinal Chemistry

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ISBN: 9781789851731 9781789851748 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76494 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The area covered by this book undoubtedly includes a multidisciplinary approach. It combines and uses the wide range of methods and knowledge from a variety of disciplines in chemistry, pharmacology, and biology to synthesize new or extracted natural substances and their characterization, in terms of bioefficiency in different systems, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Importance is placed on revealing the interactions and effects on organisms. The process is long term, ranging from synthesis to potential testing of substances in animal studies, followed by monitoring effects on patients. The purpose is to define molecular targets of the highest efficacy of the prepared drugs, minimizing the undesirable effects. The content of this book is conceived with these intentions.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 / 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039210824 / 9783039210831 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-083-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

Keywords

ion channel --- TRPC --- small molecules --- calcium --- chemical probes --- TRPV1 --- TRPV2 --- TRPV3 --- TRPV4 --- mucosal epithelium --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- TRPM4 channel --- cardiovascular system --- physiology --- pathophysiology --- TRPC6 --- elementary immunology --- inflammation --- calcium --- sodium --- neutrophils --- lymphocytes --- endothelium --- platelets --- human medulla oblongata --- cuneate nucleus --- dorsal column nuclei --- TRPV1 --- calcitonin gene-related peptide --- substance P --- TRP channels --- calcium signaling --- salivary glands --- xerostomia --- radiation --- inflammation --- transient receptor potential channels --- TRPC3 pharmacology --- channel structure --- lipid mediators --- photochromic ligands --- transient receptor potential --- TRPC3 --- mGluR1 --- GABAB --- EPSC --- Purkinje cell --- cerebellum --- toxicology --- TRP channels --- organ toxicity --- chemicals --- pollutants --- chemosensor --- TRPM7 --- kinase --- inflammation --- lymphocytes --- calcium signalling --- SMAD --- TH17 --- hypersensitivity --- regulatory T cells --- thrombosis --- graft versus host disease --- 2D gel electrophoresis --- AP18 --- HEK293 --- HSP70 --- MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) --- nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS --- proteomics --- sulfur mustard --- TRPA1 --- TRPC channels --- diacylglycerol --- TRPC4 --- TRPC5 --- NHERF --- TRP channel --- TRPY1 --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- calcium --- manganese --- oxidative stress --- ion channels --- overproduction --- production platform --- protein purification --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- sensors --- transient receptor potential (TRP) channels --- yeast --- adipose tissue --- bioavailable --- menthol --- topical --- TRPM8 --- n/a

Emerging Marine Biotoxins

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ISBN: 9783039215133 / 9783039213498 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-349-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The emergence of marine and freshwater toxins in geographical areas where they have never been reported before is a concern due to the considerable impact on (sea)food contamination, and consequently, on public health. Several groups of marine biotoxins, in particular tetrodotoxins, ciguatoxins, and palytoxins, are included among the relevant marine biotoxins that have recently emerged in several coastal areas. A similar situation has been observed in freshwater, where cyanobacterial toxins, such as microcystins, could end up in unexpected areas such as the estuaries where shellfish are cultivated. Climate change and the increased availability of nutrients have been considered as the key factors in the expansion of all of these toxins into new areas; however, this could also be due to more intense biological invasions, more sensitive analytical methods, or perhaps even an increased scientific interest in these natural contaminations. The incidences of human intoxications due to the consumption of seafood contaminated with these toxins have made their study an important task to accomplish in order to protect human health. This Special Issue has a focus on a wide variety of emerging biotoxin classes and techniques to identify and quantify them.

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