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Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy

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ISBN: 9783038974499 / 9783038974505 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-450-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 11:37:07
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that can affect all ages. Although the majority of people with epilepsy can have excellent seizure control with medication, about 30% will fail anti-epileptic drugs. For those with medically intractable epilepsy, recurrent seizures lead to elevated mortality and injury risks, and the seizures themselves are socially disabling. Fortunately, for many people with intractable epilepsy, epilepsy can be cured or seizures better controlled with surgery.Localization of the seizure focus followed by surgical resection provide the best opportunities to cure epilepsy. Having a better understanding of the neuro-anatomy and physiology of epilepsy improves our ability to define the epileptic network and effectively treat epilepsy. Minimal access surgical approaches result in more rapid recovery from surgery, less pain, and more satisfied patients.For individuals without an opportunity to cure their epilepsy, new and emerging technologies can improve their quality of life by preventing injuries and reducing seizure frequency and severity.This Special Issue will highlight advances in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of epilepsy, including imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) approaches to defining the epileptic focus, understanding the epileptic network, and characterizing the anatomical substrate of epilepsy.

Neuroimaging - Structure, Function and Mind

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ISBN: 9781789858051 9781789858068 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76733 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Neuroimaging provides a valuable noninvasive window into the human neural system and is used in fundamental and clinical research. Imaging techniques are essential for understanding spontaneous neural activity and brain mechanisms engaged in the processing of external inputs, memory formation, and cognition. Modern imaging modalities make it possible to visualize memory processes within the brain and to create images of its structure and function. Scientists and technologists are joining forces to pave the way for improving imaging technologies and methods, data analysis, and the application of imaging to investigate the wide spectra of neurological diseases, neuropsychological disorders, and aging. Imaging techniques are essential for the identification of biological markers of the earliest stages of neurodiseases and the development of new therapies. This book intends to provide the reader with a short overview of the current achievements in the state-of-the-art imaging modality methods, their highlights, and limitations in neuroscience research and clinical applications. The current state of in-vivo neuroimaging methods in the context of the understanding and diagnosis of mental disorders and relation to the mind is also discussed in a modern compact format, featuring the latest and most relevant research results.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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ISBN: 9781789238211 9781789238228 9781838801731 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78456 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Diagnostic imaging has undergone many changes over the last several years. Technical developments have defined Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the leading diagnostic modality in different diseases. MRI is definitive and sensitive and the current requirements of medicine call for radiologists to be proficient in its use. This book provides complete and detailed information about the fast-developing field of MRI from physicians, radiologists, and other clinical specialists. It is a practical guide to using MRI in areas such as cardiology and pulmonology, among others.

Essentials of Abdominal Ultrasound

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ISBN: 9781789842111 9781789842128 9781789847444 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73848 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Abdominal ultrasound is a bedside diagnostic tool that helps to discover many abdominal problems. It is a safe and painless procedure that has proven extremely useful for patient workup and diagnosis. This book illustrates the use of ultrasound for all the various organs of the abdomen. Each chapter covers a different organ and presents the latest knowledge and techniques of imaging. The content contained within is relevant across many specialties, including radiology and internal medicine, and is useful for physicians and medical residents and students alike.

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

Skin-Related Neglected Tropical Diseases (Skin-NTDs)—A New Challenge

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ISBN: 9783039212538 / 9783039212545 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-254-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue explores the range of clinical manifestations and epidemiology of both skin NTDs and common skin disease in endemic regions, the use of common diagnostic and management pathways, the different technologies that play a role in diagnosis and training, the role of patient involvement at a community level, as well as the assessment of the results of different initiatives in the field.

Keywords

Mycobacterium ulcerans --- animal reservoir --- transmission --- scabies --- Cushing syndrome --- iatrogenic --- topical corticosteroids --- teledermatology --- eHealth --- mHealth --- long range diagnosis --- dermatology --- telepathology --- technology --- skin disease --- podoconiosis --- lymphedema --- neglected tropical diseases --- NTDs --- mental health --- community engagement --- patient involvement --- stigma --- teledermatology --- Africa --- primary health care --- skin diseases --- tele-expertise --- yaws --- Treponema pallidum --- onchodermatitis --- onchocercal skin disease --- onchocerciasis --- ivermectin --- mycetoma --- clinical presentation --- review --- scabies --- neglected tropical diseases --- impetigo --- mass drug administration --- ivermectin --- integration --- neglected tropical diseases --- disease mapping --- mass drug administration --- morbidity management --- skin diseases --- mobile phone application --- NTDs --- dermatology --- mHealth --- leprosy --- leprosy --- leprosy diagnosis --- PCR --- slit skin smears --- point of care test --- skin biopsy --- early diagnosis --- scabies --- outbreak --- drought --- emergency state --- scabies --- diagnosis --- digital handheld microscope --- resource-poor setting --- Amerindian communities --- Amazon lowland --- case management --- integration --- mass drug administration --- neglected tropical diseases --- skin infections --- skin NTDs --- surveillance --- training --- tropical skin diseases --- n/a --- Mite-Gallery Unit (MGU) --- Entodermoscopy (EDS) --- Dry Dermatoscopy (d-DS) --- Wet Dermatoscopy (w-DS) --- Enhanced Dermatoscopy (e-DS) --- subcutaneous mycosis --- actinomycetoma --- eumycetoma --- sporotrichosis Community dermatology

Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis

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ISBN: 9783038977421 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-743-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is the definitive reference regarding the global status of melioidosis in 2018. Melioidosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), so much so that it is not even included in the WHO list of NTDs. Yet modeling suggests that it kills more people worldwide every year than diseases that are much better known, such as leptospirosis and dengue. The reasons for this under-recognition are numerous, including the fact that it mainly affects the disadvantaged rural poor in areas that are poorly supplied with the diagnostic capability to make the diagnosis. In 22 separate articles, expert authors from around the world have summarized what is known about the burden of the disease in humans and animals and the presence of the causative bacterium in the environment in their countries or regions. They have also identified the main obstacles and challenges to establishing the true burden, and to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnosis and optimal care for this all too frequently fatal disease. Rather than focusing on the theoretical risk of the use of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a biological weapon, this book highlights its importance as a clear and present danger to global public health.

Keywords

melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- diagnosis --- treatment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Laos --- Lao PDR --- melioidosis --- Sri Lanka --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Cambodia --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Mexico --- Central America --- Caribbean --- epidemiology --- awareness --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Malaysia --- epidemiology --- bacteriology --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- transmission modes --- melioidosis --- Australia --- tropical medicine --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Myanmar --- Melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- western Indian Ocean --- diagnosis --- MLST --- Madagascar --- Mauritius --- Réunion --- Seychelles --- melioidosis --- B. pseudomallei --- Singapore --- clinical --- veterinary --- environmental --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Indonesia --- Papua New Guinea --- Oceania --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Thailand --- mortality --- diagnosis --- surveillance --- awareness --- treatment --- prevention --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Vietnam --- public awareness --- animal --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia --- Bangladesh --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- India --- melioidosis --- South Asia --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- South America --- melioidosis --- Africa --- Middle East --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- genomics --- public awareness --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Hong Kong --- melioidosis --- Philippines --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- China

Electromagnetic Technologies for Medical Diagnostics. Fundamental Issues, Clinical Applications and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038976769 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-677-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039212491 / 9783039212507 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-250-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the first microRNA. The size of the microRNome and complexity of animal body plans and organ systems suggests a role for microRNAs in cell fate determination and differentiation. More than 2000 sequences have been proposed to represent unique microRNA genes in humans, with an increasing number of mechanistic roles identified in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. Thus, dysregulation of a few key microRNAs can have a profound global effect on the gene expression and molecular programs of a cell. This great potential for clinical intervention has captured the interest and imagination of researchers in many fields. However, very few fields have been as prolific as the field of cancer research. This Special Issue provides but a glimpse of the large body of literature of microRNA biology in cancer research, containing 4 original research studies and 4 review articles that focus on specific hematologic or solid tumors in disease. Collectively, these articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches and methodologies for microRNA detection in tissue, blood, and other body fluids in a range of biomarkers applications, from early cancer detection to prognosis and treatment response. The articles also address some of the challenges regarding clinical implementation.

Reducing the Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Buildings: Assessment and Retrofit

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ISBN: 9783039212576 / 9783039212583 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-258-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Devastating seismic events occurring all over the world keep raising the awareness of the scientific, technical and political communities to the need of identifying assets at risk and developing more effective and cost-efficient seismic risk mitigation strategies. Significant advances in earthquake engineering research have been achieved with the rise of new technologies and techniques with potential use in risk assessment, management and mitigation. Nevertheless, there is still much to be done, particularly with regard to existing buildings, most of them built without anti-seismic provisions. The wide variety of construction and structural systems, associated with the complex behaviour of their materials, greatly limit the application of current codes and building standards to the existing building stock. To tackle this issue, there is a fundamental need for developing multidisciplinary research that can lead to the development of more sophisticated and reliable methods of analysis, as well as to improved seismic retrofitting techniques compliant with buildings conservation principles. This book intends to contribute to the aforementioned goal by stimulating the exchange of ideas and knowledge on the assessment and reduction of the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings. 10 high quality contributions authored by international experts from Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Nepal, Czech Republic and Spain are included herein. All contributions pursue the protection of existing buildings by considering the most updated methods and advanced solutions emerging from different fields of expertise.

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eng (18)

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2019 (23)