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Condensed Matter Researches in Cryospheric Science

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ISBN: 9783039213238 / 9783039213245 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-324-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, and glaciers represent one of the most important archives of atmospheric composition and its variability. From the Himalaya to the European Alps, the longest mid-latitude mountain chain in the world, lie thousands of glaciers that have collected atmospheric compounds over the last millennia. China and Italy are located at the opposite terminals of this long mountain chain, comprising strategic positions for understanding climate evolution and providing important information for the modeling of future climates. The results presented are highlights of some of the most recent advances in cryospheric studies, especially on the topic of mineral dust and aerosols in the atmosphere. They evidence the complexity of the chemical–physical processes involving solid compounds occurring in glacier, snow, and permafrost environments, covering different aspects such as spatial and temporal trends, as well as the impact of mineral and nonmineral particles. Results also show that recent advances in measurement techniques and source apportionment may be powerful and sophisticated tools to provide novel, high-quality scientific information.

Analysis of Peptides and Proteins by Electrophoretic Techniques

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ISBN: 9783039212279 / 9783039212286 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-228-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The characterization of peptides and proteins is central to understanding their function and expression in biological matrices. Moreover, these macromolecules are important biomarkers of many human diseases. In recent years, the performance of separation techniques based on electromigration have significantly increased. The development of microdevices has reduced sample consumption and waste production while high-sensitivity detectors, such as mass spectrometry (MS) or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), have significantly improved with regards to separation efficiency and detection limits. All of these advancements have led to appreciably enlarged fields of application. Nowadays, a multitude of studies using separation techniques based on electromigration to study proteins and peptides from numerous real matrices are available in the literature. This Special Issue covers the most recent knowledge and advances in the study of peptides and proteins using several electrophoresis techniques, as well as the characterization of relevant proteins and peptides in application areas such as clinical studies, functional foods, and toxicology.

Plasmonics and its Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979142 / 9783038979159 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-915-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field that combines fundamental research and applications ranging from areas such as physics to engineering, chemistry, biology, medicine, food sciences, and the environmental sciences. Plasmonics appeared in the 1950s with the discovery of surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonics then went through a novel propulsion in the mid-1970s, when surface-enhanced Raman scattering was discovered. Nevertheless, it is in this last decade that a very significant explosion of plasmonics and its applications has occurred. Thus, this book provides a snapshot of the current advances in these various areas of plasmonics and its applications, such as engineering, sensing, surface-enhanced fluorescence, catalysis, and photovoltaic devices.

Optical MEMS

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ISBN: 9783039213030 / 9783039213047 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-304-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS), or optical microsystems are devices or systems that interact with light through actuation or sensing at a micro- or millimeter scale. Optical MEMS have had enormous commercial success in projectors, displays, and fiberoptic communications. The best-known example is Texas Instruments’ digital micromirror devices (DMDs). The development of optical MEMS was impeded seriously by the Telecom Bubble in 2000. Fortunately, DMDs grew their market size even in that economy downturn. Meanwhile, in the last one and half decade, the optical MEMS market has been slowly but steadily recovering. During this time, the major technological change was the shift of thin-film polysilicon microstructures to single-crystal–silicon microsructures. Especially in the last few years, cloud data centers are demanding large-port optical cross connects (OXCs) and autonomous driving looks for miniature LiDAR, and virtual reality/augmented reality (VR/AR) demands tiny optical scanners. This is a new wave of opportunities for optical MEMS. Furthermore, several research institutes around the world have been developing MOEMS devices for extreme applications (very fine tailoring of light beam in terms of phase, intensity, or wavelength) and/or extreme environments (vacuum, cryogenic temperatures) for many years. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on (1) novel design, fabrication, control, and modeling of optical MEMS devices based on all kinds of actuation/sensing mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying optical MEMS devices of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, biology, medicine, agriculture, physics, astronomy, space, or defense.

Keywords

scanning micromirror --- electromagnetic actuator --- angle sensor --- flame retardant 4 (FR4) --- variable optical attenuator (VOA) --- wavelength dependent loss (WDL) --- polarization dependent loss (PDL) --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- tunable fiber laser --- echelle grating --- DMD chip --- MEMS scanning micromirror --- fringe projection --- laser stripe scanning --- quality map --- large reflection variations --- 3D measurement --- laser stripe width --- vibration noise --- MLSSP --- MEMS scanning mirror --- wavefront sensing --- digital micromirror device --- ocular aberrations --- dual-mode liquid-crystal (LC) device --- infrared Fabry–Perot (FP) filtering --- LC micro-lenses controlled electrically --- spectrometer --- infrared --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) --- stray light --- programmable spectral filter --- digital micromirror device --- optical switch --- microscanner --- input shaping --- open-loop control --- quasistatic actuation --- residual oscillation --- usable scan range --- higher-order modes --- resonant MEMS scanner --- electrostatic --- parametric resonance --- NIR fluorescence --- intraoperative microscope --- 2D Lissajous --- fluorescence confocal --- metasurface --- metalens --- field of view (FOV) --- achromatic --- Huygens’ metalens --- bio-optical imaging --- optical coherence tomography --- confocal --- two-photon --- spectrometer --- MEMS mirror --- electrothermal bimorph --- Cu/W bimorph --- electrothermal actuation --- reliability --- n/a

Biological and Biogenic Crystallization

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ISBN: 9783038975212 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-522-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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The intention of the Special Issue ""Biological and Biogenic Crystallization"" was to create an international platform aimed at covering a broad field of results involving the crystallization of biological molecules, including virus and protein crystallization, biogenic crystallization including physiological and pathological crystallization taking place in living organisms (human beings, animals, plants, bacteria, etc.), and bio-inspired crystallization. Despite many years of research on biological and biogenic crystals, there are still open questions as well as hot and timely topics. This Special Issue contains seven articles that present a cross-section of the current research activities in the of field of biological and biogenic crystals. The authors of the presented articles prove the vibrant and topical nature of this field. We hope that this Special Issue will serve as a source of inspiration for future investigations, and will be useful for scientists and researchers who work on the exploration of biological and biogenic crystals.

Abiotic Stress Effects on Performance of Horticultural Crops

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ISBN: 9783039217502 / 9783039217519 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-751-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-05 10:43:33
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Horticultural crop yield and quality depend on genotype, environmental conditions, and production management. In particular, adverse environmental conditions may greatly affect crop performance, reducing crop yield by 50%–70%. Abiotic stresses such as cold, heat, drought, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and ultraviolet radiation affect multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms in plants as they attempt to cope with the stress conditions. However, different crop species can have different sensitivities or tolerances to specific abiotic stresses. Tolerant plants may activate different strategies to adapt to or avoid the negative effect of abiotic stresses. At the physiological level, photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency of plants may be modulated to enhance tolerance against the stress. At the biochemical level, several antioxidant systems may be activated, and many enzymes may produce stress-related metabolites to help avoid cellular damage, including compounds such as proline, glycine betaine, and amino acids. Within each crop species there is a wide variability of tolerance to abiotic stresses, and some wild relatives may carry useful traits for enhancing the tolerance to abiotic stresses in their progeny through either traditional or biotechnological breeding. The research papers and reviews presented in this book provide an update of the scientific knowledge of crop interactions with abiotic stresses.

Hollow core optical fibers

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ISBN: 9783039210886 / 9783039210893 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-089-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The possibility of guiding light in air has fascinated optical scientists and engineers since the dawn of optical fiber technology. In the last few years, hollow core optical fibers have been attracting the attention of an expanding worldwide research community, furthering the design, fabrication and device implementation of specialty optical fibers. Hollow core optical fibers are entering almost any specific application field of optics from medicine to security; from telecommunication to industrial processing; from instrumentation to biology. In parallel to the increased number of applications, major advances are still being made on the optimization of hollow core fiber designs and on the study of its underlying guiding properties, as well as in the use of different materials and fabrication techniques, which, in turn, are providing even more ways of exploitation of this technology and new technical challenges. This Special Issue of Fibers rides the wave of this increasing interest in the field of hollow core optical fibers by providing an overview of the recent progress in this field as well as an updated and indicative sample of current research activities worldwide.

G-quadruplex and Microorganisms

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ISBN: 9783039212439 / 9783039212446 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-244-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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G-quadruplexes (G4s) are nucleic acids secondary structures that form in DNA or RNA guanine (G)-rich strands. In recent years, the presence of G4s in microorganisms has attracted increasing interest. In prokaryotes, G4 sequences have been reported in several human pathogens. Bacterial enzymes able to process G4s have been identified. In viruses, G4s have been suggested to be involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: They have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human papilloma virus, swine pseudorabies virus, and other viruses’ genomes. New evidence shows the presence of G4s in parasitic protozoa, such as the causative agent of malaria. G4 binding proteins and mRNA G4s have been implicated in the regulation of microorganisms’ genome replication and translation. G4 ligands have been developed and tested both as tools to study the complexity of G4-mediated mechanisms in the viral life cycle and as therapeutic agents. Moreover, new techniques to study G4 folding and their interactions with proteins have been developed. This Special Issue will focus on G4s present in microorganisms, addressing all the above aspects.

Micro- and Nanofluidics for Bionanoparticle Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039215942 / 9783039215959 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-595-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Bionanoparticles such as microorganisms and exosomes are recoganized as important targets for clinical applications, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Other nanoscale biological particles, includeing liposomes, micelles, and functionalized polymeric particles are widely used in nanomedicines. The recent deveopment of microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies has enabled the separation and anslysis of these species in a lab-on-a-chip platform, while there are still many challenges to address before these analytical tools can be adopted in practice. For example, the complex matrices within which these species reside in create a high background for their detection. Their small dimension and often low concentration demand creative strategies to amplify the sensing signal and enhance the detection speed. This Special Issue aims to recruit recent discoveries and developments of micro- and nanofluidic strategies for the processing and analysis of biological nanoparticles. The collection of papers will hopefully bring out more innovative ideas and fundamental insights to overcome the hurdles faced in the separation and detection of bionanoparticles.

Salinity Tolerance in Plants

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ISBN: 9783039210268 / 9783039210275 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-027-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Arabidopsis --- Brassica napus --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- NaCl stress --- nitric oxide --- redox homeostasis --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- bZIP transcription factors --- salt stress --- transcriptional regulation --- photosynthesis --- lipid accumulation --- Apocyni Veneti Folium --- salt stress --- multiple bioactive constituents --- physiological changes --- multivariate statistical analysis --- banana (Musa acuminata L.) --- ROP --- genome-wide identification --- abiotic stress --- salt stress --- MaROP5g --- rice --- genome-wide association study --- salt stress --- germination --- natural variation --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- salt stress --- transcriptome analysis --- impairment of photosynthesis --- underpinnings of salt stress responses --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- J8-1 plum line --- mandelonitrile --- Prunus domestica --- redox signalling --- salicylic acid --- salt-stress --- soluble nutrients --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- VOZ --- transcription factor --- salt stress --- transcriptional activator --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- lipid peroxidation --- Na+ --- photosynthesis --- photosystem --- RNA binding protein --- nucleolin --- salt stress --- photosynthesis --- light saturation point --- booting stage --- transcriptome --- grapevine --- salt stress --- ROS detoxification --- phytohormone --- transcription factors --- Arabidopsis --- CDPK --- ion homeostasis --- NMT --- ROS --- salt stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- ascorbate cycle --- hydrogen peroxide --- reactive oxygen species --- salinity --- SnRK2 --- RNA-seq --- DEUs --- flax --- NaCl stress --- EST-SSR --- Salt stress --- Oryza sativa --- proteomics --- iTRAQ quantification --- cell membrane injury --- root activity --- antioxidant systems --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- salt stress --- signal pathway --- SsMAX2 --- Sapium sebiferum --- drought, osmotic stress --- salt stress --- redox homeostasis --- strigolactones --- ABA --- TGase --- photosynthesis --- salt stress --- polyamines --- cucumber --- abiotic stresses --- high salinity --- HKT1 --- halophytes --- glycophytes --- poplars (Populus) --- salt tolerance --- molecular mechanisms --- SOS --- ROS --- Capsicum annuum L. --- CaDHN5 --- salt stress --- osmotic stress --- dehydrin --- Gossypium arboretum --- salt tolerance --- single nucleotide polymorphisms --- association mapping. --- n/a

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