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What Works in Conservation 2019

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Book Series: What Works in Conservation ISSN: 2059-4232 / 2059-4240 ISBN: 9781783747627 9781783747641 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 706 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0179 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-25 23:09:57
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What Works in Conservation has been created to provide practitioners with answers to these and many other questions about practical conservation. This book provides an assessment of the effectiveness of 1389 conservation interventions based on summarized scientific evidence. The 2019 edition contains new material on bat conservation. Other chapters cover practical global conservation of primates, peatlands, shrublands and heathlands, management of captive animals as well as an extended chapter on control of freshwater invasive species, the global conservation of amphibians, bats, birds and forests, conservation of European farmland biodiversity and some aspects of enhancing natural pest control, enhancing soil fertility and control of freshwater invasive species. It contains key results from the summarized evidence for each conservation intervention and an assessment of the effectiveness of each by international expert panels. The accompanying website www.conservationevidence.com describes each of the studies individually, and provides full references.This is the fourth edition of What Works in Conservation, which is revised on an annual basis.

Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783039219643 9783039219650 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-965-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) of Puerto Rico. It transforms Holocene-based scientific paradigms of the tropics into Anthropocene applications and outlooks of wilderness, managed forests, and urban environments. This volume showcases how the focus of the Institute’s programs is evolving to support sustainable tropical forest conservation despite uncertain conditions. The manuscripts showcased here highlight the importance of shared stewardship and a long-term, hands-on approach to conservation, research programs, and novel organizations intended to meet contemporary conservation challenges. Policies relevant to the Anthropocene, as well as the use of experiments to anticipate future responses of tropical forests to global warming, are reexamined in these pages. Urban topics include how cities can co-produce new knowledge to spark sustainable and resilient transformations. Long-term results and research applications of topics such as soil biota, migratory birds, tropical vegetation, substrate chemistry, and the tropical carbon cycle are also described in the volume. Moreover, the question of how to best use land on a tropical island is addressed. This volume is intended to be of interest to all actors involved in long-term sustainable forest management and research in light of the historical lessons and future directions that may come out of a better understanding of tropical cities and forests in the Anthropocene epoch.

Keywords

Anthropocene --- Forest Service --- vision --- contemporary conservation --- biomass --- allometry --- volume expansion factors --- soil organic carbon --- tropical forest area --- forest inventory data --- novel forests --- tree plantations --- secondary forests --- mature forests --- dry tropical forests --- humid tropical forests --- tropical deforestation --- annual cycle --- carry over effects --- climate change --- Guánica --- Nearctic-Neotropical --- novel forests --- stoichiometry of leaf litter --- nitrogen fixing trees --- naturalized species --- C/N --- C/P --- and N/P ratios --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- element concentration in leaf litter --- succession --- species dominance --- tropical forests --- invertebrates --- microbiota --- soil biota --- litter --- wood --- latitude --- elevation --- disturbance --- gradients --- tropical karst --- element concentration --- N/P ratios --- Ca/Al relationship --- ?13C --- ?15N --- knowledge co-production --- idiom of co-production --- knowledge infrastructures --- knowledge systems --- knowledge systems analysis --- cities --- land use governance --- Anthropocene --- disturbance --- hurricane --- succession --- long-term --- basal area --- species composition --- trees --- tropical --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- Caribbean --- land use planning --- tropical agriculture --- tropical forests --- geospatial analyses --- n/a --- landscape conservation --- network governance --- strategic teams --- communications --- leadership --- adaptive management --- tropical forest --- Anthropocene --- U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule --- El Yunque National Forest --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- introduced species --- leaf C and N densities --- novel forests --- photosynthetic nitrogen use-efficiency --- leaf mass per area --- Tropical Forestry Research --- Long-Term Ecological Research --- Tropical Forest Management --- Tropical Forest Conservation --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- tropical --- experiments --- manipulations --- large-scale --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- conservation --- American tropics --- long-term ecological research --- tropical forest management --- Anthropocene --- Puerto Rico

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039213092 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

Forest Insects and Pathogens in a Changing Environment: Ecology, Monitoring & Genetics (IUFRO Joint Meeting of WP7.03.05 & 7.03.10)

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ISBN: 9783039215119 9783039215126 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-512-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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After the successful conclusion of the Joint Meeting of IUFRO’s 7.03.05 & 7.03.10 working parties and given the exciting and novel studies that have been presented in the framework of this meeting, we decided to present some of these studies in the current Special Issue of Forests. To make this issue more appealing and interesting to everyone in the field of Forest Protection, studies that cover a wide range of topics were selected, ranging from ecology and phylogeography to forest management and protection. More importantly, as these studies refer to pests and pathogens from different parts of the world, it is expected that the knowledge gained can be further used in the protection of natural environment worldwide.

Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Other Vegetation Parameters

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212392 9783039212408 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-240-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Monitoring of vegetation structure and functioning is critical to modeling terrestrial ecosystems and energy cycles. In particular, leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural property of vegetation used in many land surface vegetation, climate, and crop production models. Canopy structure (LAI, fCover, plant height, and biomass) and biochemical parameters (leaf pigmentation and water content) directly influence the radiative transfer process of sunlight in vegetation, determining the amount of radiation measured by passive sensors in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical remote sensing (RS) methods build relationships exploiting in situ measurements and/or as outputs of physical canopy radiative transfer models. The increased availability of passive (radar and LiDAR) RS data has fostered their use in many applications for the analysis of land surface properties and processes, thanks also to their insensitivity to weather conditions and the capability to exploit rich structural and textural information. Data fusion and multi-sensor integration techniques are pressing topics to fully exploit the information conveyed by both optical and microwave bands.

Keywords

conifer forest --- leaf area index --- smartphone-based method --- canopy gap fraction --- terrestrial laser scanning --- forest inventory --- density-based clustering --- forest aboveground biomass --- root biomass --- tree heights --- GLAS --- artificial neural network --- allometric scaling and resource limitation --- structure from motion (SfM) --- 3D point cloud --- remote sensing --- local maxima --- fixed tree window size --- managed temperate coniferous forests --- point cloud --- spectral information --- structure from motion (SfM) --- unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) --- chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) --- drought --- Mediterranean --- photochemical reflectance index (PRI) --- photosynthesis --- R690/R630 --- recovery --- BAAPA --- remote sensing --- household survey --- forest --- farm types --- automated classification --- sampling design --- adaptive threshold --- over and understory cover --- LAI --- leaf area index --- EPIC --- simulation --- satellite --- MODIS --- biomass --- evaluation --- southern U.S. forests --- VIIRS --- leaf area index (LAI) --- Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) --- MODIS --- consistency --- uncertainty --- evaluation --- downscaling --- Pléiades imagery --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- stem volume estimation --- remote sensing --- clumping index --- leaf area index --- trunk --- terrestrial LiDAR --- HemiView --- forest above ground biomass (AGB) --- polarization coherence tomography (PCT) --- P-band PolInSAR --- tomographic profiles --- canopy closure --- global positioning system --- hemispherical sky-oriented photo --- signal attenuation --- geographic information system --- digital aerial photograph --- aboveground biomass --- leaf area index --- photogrammetric point cloud --- recursive feature elimination --- machine-learning --- forest degradation --- multisource remote sensing --- modelling aboveground biomass --- random forest --- Brazilian Amazon --- validation --- phenology --- NDVI --- LAI --- spectral analyses --- European beech --- altitude --- forests biomass --- remote sensing --- REDD+ --- random forest --- Tanzania --- RapidEye

Biodiversity and Protected Areas

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ISBN: 9783038977322 9783038977339 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-733-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Biodiversity and Protected Areas assembles twelve topics from around the world, illustrating the complexities and promise of addressing the biodiversity crisis. Authors from Mongolia, Africa, India, Canada, Iraq, and the United States dwell on particular aspects and challenges relevant to those regions. Lessons and approaches from interesting localities, coupled with global analyses give the reader a synthetic view of emerging problems. The opportunities for understanding common issues across different geographies abound, such as comparing local conservation in sub-Saharan Africa with a distribution of very small protected areas in Massachusetts. Several topics will be of immediate interest to policymakers. The book is illustrated with numerous color maps and figures and the authors strove for clear, uncomplicated writing. The editors provide an overview of chapters, placing them in the context of other biodiversity and protected area literature. Students and conservationists attempting to broaden their views of biodiversity and protected areas should find this collection to be interesting.

Nonparametric Econometric Methods and Application

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ISBN: 9783038979647 9783038979654 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-965-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The present Special Issue collects a number of new contributions both at the theoretical level and in terms of applications in the areas of nonparametric and semiparametric econometric methods. In particular, this collection of papers that cover areas such as developments in local smoothing techniques, splines, series estimators, and wavelets will add to the existing rich literature on these subjects and enhance our ability to use data to test economic hypotheses in a variety of fields, such as financial economics, microeconomics, macroeconomics, labor economics, and economic growth, to name a few.

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Empirical Finance

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ISBN: 9783038977063 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-707-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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There is no denying the role of empirical research in finance and the remarkable progress of empirical techniques in this research field. This Special Issue focuses on the broad topic of “Empirical Finance” and includes novel empirical research associated with financial data. One example includes the application of novel empirical techniques, such as machine learning, data mining, wavelet transform, copula analysis, and TV-VAR, to financial data. The Special Issue includes contributions on empirical finance, such as algorithmic trading, market efficiency, market microstructure, portfolio theory and asset allocation, asset pricing models, liquidity risk premium, currency crisis, return predictability, and volatility modeling.

Keywords

text similarity --- text mining --- machine learning --- SVM --- neural network --- LSTM --- credit risk --- ensemble learning --- deep learning --- bagging --- random forest --- boosting --- deep neural network --- causality-in-variance --- cross-correlation function --- housing and stock markets --- algorithmic trading --- take profit --- stop loss --- MACD --- ATR --- city banks --- dependence structure --- copula --- n/a --- market microstructure --- price discovery --- latency --- currency crisis --- random forests --- wavelet transform --- predictive accuracy --- housing price --- bank credit --- housing loans --- real estate development loans --- TVP-VAR model --- exchange rate --- volatility --- exports --- ARDL --- Vietnam --- crude oil futures prices forecasting --- convolutional neural networks --- short-term forecasting --- utility of international currency --- inertia --- liquidity risk premium --- US dollar --- Japanese yen --- cointegration --- statistical arbitrage --- natural gas --- wholesale electricity --- futures market --- spark spread --- earnings management --- earnings manipulation --- earnings quality --- initial public offering --- IPO --- asset pricing model --- data mining --- bankruptcy prediction --- financial and non-financial variables --- institutional investors’ shareholdings --- panel data model --- piecewise regression model --- global financial crisis --- gold return --- asymmetric dependence --- financial market stress --- robust regression --- quantile regression --- structural break --- flight to quality

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

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