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Analytical Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9781439861967 Year: Pages: 326 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-29 23:58:56
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Developed from the author’s 30 years of teaching a graduate-level intermediate heat transfer course, Analytical Heat Transfer explains how to analyze and solve conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer problems. Suitable for entry-level graduate students, the book fills the gap between basic heat transfer undergraduate courses and advanced heat transfer graduate courses. The author places emphasis on modeling and solving engineering heat transfer problems analytically, rather than simply applying the equations and correlations for engineering problem calculations. He describes many well-known analytical methods and their solutions, such as Bessel functions, separation of variables, similarity method, integral method, and matrix inversion method. He also presents step-by-step mathematical formula derivations, analytical solution procedures, and numerous demonstration examples of heat transfer applications. By providing a strong analytical background, the text enables students to tackle complex engineering heat transfer problems encountered in practice. This analytical knowledge also helps them to read and understand heat transfer-related research papers.

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Heat Transfer

Urban Overheating - Progress on Mitigation Science and Engineering Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976363 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-637-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The combination of global warming and urban sprawl is the origin of the most hazardous climate change effect detected at urban level: Urban Heat Island, representing the urban overheating respect to the countryside surrounding the city. This book includes 18 papers representing the state of the art of detection, assessment mitigation and adaption to urban overheating. Advanced methods, strategies and technologies are here analyzed including relevant issues as: the role of urban materials and fabrics on urban climate and their potential mitigation, the impact of greenery and vegetation to reduce urban temperatures and improve the thermal comfort, the role the urban geometry in the air temperature rise, the use of satellite and ground data to assess and quantify the urban overheating and develop mitigation solutions, calculation methods and application to predict and assess mitigation scenarios. The outcomes of the book are thus relevant for a wide multidisciplinary audience, including: environmental scientists and engineers, architect and urban planners, policy makers and students.

Keywords

heat health --- meteorological modeling --- urban climate --- urban-climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban heat island index --- Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) --- green area --- built-up area --- air temperature --- measurement --- calculation --- urbanization --- air and surface temperature measurements --- outdoor thermal comfort --- urban heat island --- surface cool island effect --- urban overheating --- urban microclimate --- mitigation strategies --- urban development --- park cool island --- urban cooling --- urban morphology --- micro-climate simulations --- ageing --- emissivity --- measurement --- solar reflectance --- solar reflectance index --- thermal emittance --- urban heat island --- land surface temperature --- “hot spots” --- “cold spots” --- MODIS downscaling --- overheating --- summer heat stress --- urban open space --- shading --- thermal comfort --- Physiologically Equivalent Temperature --- mitigation strategies --- cooling technologies --- cool materials --- WRF-Chem --- urban climate --- air quality --- urban heat island --- surface albedo --- climatic perception --- urban areas --- thermal comfort --- subtropical climate --- cool pavements --- road lighting --- urban heat island --- road surface --- material characterization --- luminance coefficient --- energy savings --- Euramet --- EMPIR 16NRM02 --- building energy performance --- energy simulation --- building retrofit --- multi-objective optimization --- genetic algorithm --- urban overheating --- cost-optimal analysis --- lifecycle analysis --- office buildings --- sustainability --- air temperature --- spectral analysis --- multifractal analysis --- structure functions analysis --- cool roofs --- fine-resolution meteorological modeling --- mobile temperature observations --- urban climate archipelago --- urban heat island --- urban vegetation --- urbanized WRF --- Weather Research and Forecasting model --- multiple linear regression --- urban heat island --- urban climatology --- urban energy balance --- air temperature --- land cover fraction --- urban morphology --- land surface temperature --- heat stress --- urban heat mitigation --- albedo --- cool facades --- spectral reflectance --- urban remote sensing --- empirical line method --- building scale --- local climate zone --- urban climate --- sky view factor --- morphological indicator --- open science --- GIS --- urban heat island --- urban overheating --- non-constructible parcels --- cool surfaces --- urban vegetation --- ENVI-met --- mitigation measures --- Beirut

Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

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ISBN: 9783038974635 9783038974642 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-464-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 10:24:11
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While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to various stresses, and to use the generated knowledge in modern breeding programs. Most knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with stress responses has been obtained from investigations using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Stress hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, have been shown to play key roles in defense responses against abiotic and biotic stresses. More recently, evidence that growth-regulating plant hormones are also involved in stress responses has been accumulating. Epigenetic regulation at the DNA and histone level, and gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs appear to be important as well. Many approaches have used mutant screens and next generation sequencing approaches to identify key players and mechanisms how plants respond to their environment. However, it is often unclear to which extent the elucidated mechanisms also operate in crops.This Special Issue Book, therefore, aims to close this gap and contains a number of contributions from labs that work both, on Arabidopsis and crops. The book includes contributions reporting how crop plant species respond to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flooding, and salinity, as well as biotic stimuli during microbial infections. It contains reviews, opinions, perspectives, and original articles, and its focus is on our molecular understanding of biotic and abiotic stress responses in crops, highlighting, among other aspects, the role of stress hormones, secondary metabolites, signaling mechanisms, and changes in gene expression patterns and their regulation. Approaches and ideas to achieve stress tolerance and to maintain yield stability of agricultural crops during stress periods can be found in most chapters. These include also perspectives on how knowledge from model plants can be utilized to facilitate crop-plant breeding and biotechnology.

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

Joseph Fourier 250th Birthday. Modern Fourier Analysis and Fourier Heat Equation in Information Sciences for the XXIst century

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ISBN: 9783038977469 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-747-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:17:10
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For the 250th birthday of Joseph Fourier, born in 1768 in Auxerre, France, this MDPI Special Issue will explore modern topics related to Fourier Analysis and Heat Equation. Modern developments of Fourier analysis during the 20th century have explored generalizations of Fourier and Fourier–Plancherel formula for non-commutative harmonic analysis, applied to locally-compact, non-Abelian groups. In parallel, the theory of coherent states and wavelets has been generalized over Lie groups. One should add the developments, over the last 30 years, of the applications of harmonic analysis to the description of the fascinating world of aperiodic structures in condensed matter physics. The notions of model sets, introduced by Y. Meyer, and of almost periodic functions, have revealed themselves to be extremely fruitful in this domain of natural sciences. The name of Joseph Fourier is also inseparable from the study of the mathematics of heat. Modern research on heat equations explores the extension of the classical diffusion equation on Riemannian, sub-Riemannian manifolds, and Lie groups. In parallel, in geometric mechanics, Jean-Marie Souriau interpreted the temperature vector of Planck as a space-time vector, obtaining, in this way, a phenomenological model of continuous media, which presents some interesting properties. One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Continuous Casting

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ISBN: 9783039213214 9783039213221 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-322-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Continuous casting is an industrial process whereby molten metal is solidified into a semi-finished billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in finishing mills; it is the most frequently used process to cast not only steel, but also aluminium and copper alloys. Since its widespread introduction for steel in the 1950s, it has evolved to achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. It allows lower-cost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation. Nevertheless, challenges remain and new ones appear, as ways are sought to minimize casting defects and to cast alloys that could originally only be cast via other means. This Special Issue of the journal ""Metals"" consists of 14 research articles that cover many aspects of experimental work and theoretical modelling related to the ongoing development of continuous casting processes.

Keywords

slab continuous casting --- hybrid simulation model --- uneven secondary cooling --- numerical simulation --- molten steel flow --- solidification --- inclusion motion --- inclusion entrapment --- billet continuous casting --- swirling flow tundish --- multiphase flow --- heat transfer --- mold --- continuous casting --- numerical simulation --- round bloom --- continuous casting --- final electromagnetic stirring --- electromagnetic field --- polycrystalline model --- pores --- inclusions --- mechanism --- beam blank --- crystal --- propagation --- asymptotic analysis --- numerical simulation --- continuous casting --- air mist spray cooling --- continuous casting --- heat flux --- HTC --- secondary cooling --- thin-slab cast direct-rolling --- austenite grain coarsening --- grain growth control --- liquid core reduction --- secondary cooling --- two-phase pinning --- annular argon blowing --- upper nozzle --- flow behavior --- argon gas distribution --- tundish --- continuous casting --- bulge deformation --- thermomechanical coupling --- segmented roller --- finite element analysis --- steel tundish --- baffle --- flow field --- velocity --- PIV --- multi-source information fusion --- data stream --- continuous casting --- roll gap value --- prediction --- global optimization --- support vector regression --- variational mode decomposition --- empirical mode decomposition --- support vector regression --- mold level --- continuous casting --- magnetohydrodynamics --- fluid flow --- bubbles --- inclusions --- entrapment --- entrainment --- heat transfer --- solidification --- slab mold --- continuous casting --- n/a

Refrigeration Systems and Applications 2019

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219520 9783039219537 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-953-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The Special Issue “Refrigeration Systems and Applications” aims to encourage researchers to address the concerns associated with climate change and the sustainability of artificial cold production systems, and to further the transition to the more sustainable technologies and methodologies of tomorrow through theoretical, experimental, and review research on the different applications of refrigeration and associated topics.

Material and Process Design for Lightweight Structures

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ISBN: 9783038979586 9783038979593 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-959-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The use of lightweight structures across several industries has become inevitable in today’s world given the ever-rising demand for improved fuel economy and resource efficiency. In the automotive industry, composites, reinforced plastics, and lightweight materials, such as aluminum and magnesium are being adopted by many OEMs at increasing rates to reduce vehicle mass and develop efficient new lightweight designs. Automotive weight reduction with high-strength steel is also witnessing major ongoing efforts to design novel damage-controlled forming processes for a new generation of efficient, lightweight steel components. Although great progress has been made over the past decades in understanding the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, their extensive use as lightweight solutions is still limited due to numerous challenges that play a key role in cost competitiveness. Hence, significant research efforts are still required to fully understand the anisotropic material behavior, failure mechanisms, and, most importantly, the interplay between industrial processing, microstructure development, and the resulting properties. This Special Issue reprint book features concise reports on the current status in the field. The topics discussed herein include areas of manufacturing and processing technologies of materials for lightweight applications, innovative microstructure and process design concepts, and advanced characterization techniques combined with modeling of material’s behavior.

Advanced Applications for Smart Energy Systems Considering Grid-Interactive Demand Response

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ISBN: 9783039219988 9783039219995 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-999-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book covers applied research on smart energy systems, smart grids, smart energy homes, smart energy products and services, and the advanced applications thereof, in the context of demand response and grid interactions. In particular, this book is focused on interdisciplinary research results that combine technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects of smart energy systems and smart energy products. Moreover, several chapters are based on the evaluation of real life cases, energy pilots, prototypes of smart energy products, and end user surveys and interviews.

Auf dem Weg zu einer Green Economy

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Neue Ökologie ISBN: 9783839444931 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.14361/9783839444931 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-01 11:21:03
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Green economy is the future – this volume illuminates options, challenges and factors of success, providing perspectives for politics and the economy.

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