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Chapter 26 The Role of Pseudo-Commons in Post-Socialist Countries (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138060906 9781315162782 Year: Pages: 17 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:03
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If Hardin’s (1968) widely cited case of a pasture accessible to everyone were the standard for public natural resources, those resources would have the tendency to be depleted, degraded, destroyed or overexploited. Hardin explains that each herdsman found it more profitable to graze more animals than the pasture could support, since each took all the profit from an extra animal but bore only a fraction of the cost of overgrazing. Yet, what Hardin calls a “Tragedy of the Commons” is rather a “Tragedy of Open Access” (Feeny et al., 1990), since Hardin confuses the characteristics of a resource, such as low excludability and high rivalry in consumption, with its property rights regime which can take diverse forms. Hardin describes an open access system, meaning no rules and no property rights regime in place, that leads to overuse and degradation, instead of a resource that is held in common. Later, Hardin (1994) refers to the same case as an “unmanaged commons”. With his pasture example, he aimed to contradict the laissez-faire attitude shared by economists in the late 1800s, which was that if each man pursued his own interest then the interests of all would be best served in the long run. To motivate this chapter, I will recall four possible methods of natural resource management that can resolve this tragedy. I will also highlight the fourth, often overlooked approach, i.e. the public manager option. In fact, there is a continuum between the two polar ends of the spectrum, from governance enacted by a single central authority to a fully decentralized system of individual decision making. Between these two extremes lies a range of governance regimes that might involve higher levels of government along with local systems (Theesfeld, 2008a; Frey et al., 2016).

Challenges and Opportunities for the EU Common Fisheries Policy Application in the Mediterranean and Black Sea

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456840 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-684-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The application of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in the Mediterranean and Black Sea faces several challenges also because of large ecological, economic, political and institutional differences across the basin. The challenge of CFP application is exacerbated by the legal/administrative situation, with large areas outside national/EU jurisdictions, by the different development of fisheries that result in fleet capacities highly different on opposite shores of some sub-basins, as well as by uneven monitoring and data availability across the basins that result in situations that hamper sustainable management. This book collates analyses related to the application of the principles included in the CFP in Mediterranean and Black Sea, including assessments of current status, scenario analyses, visions of best solutions, evaluation of critical hot spots and effects of regionalization of fisheries management. The eBook tackles from local to transboundary issues and solutions and provides a broad vision of problems together with important practical solutions for CFP application in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.

Consideration of Abiotic Natural Resources in Life Cycle Assessments

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ISBN: 9783038975458 9783038975465 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-546-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 11:06:31
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The book contains a collection of articles dealing with how the extraction of mineral resources can be considered in environmental analyses such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The consumption of resources, e.g., metals, is increasing strongly worldwide. This is associated with more energy use; environmental pollution; and social, economic, and political consequences. An increase is also expected for the coming decades. At the same time, modern products and technologies, even in the field of renewable energies, require a large number of critical raw materials. A crucial question here is the exhaustibility of natural resources. What is the relevance of resource depletion today? Must a geological shortage of metals be expected in the foreseeable future? How could such a thing be considered in the LCA of products and weighed against other environmental aspects? The articles in question have been written over the past three years by leading experts in both geology and environmental sciences and show the breadth of the controversial discussion.

Financing Quality Education for All

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9789461663009 9789462701915 9789461663016 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.11116/9789461663009 Language: English
Publisher: Leuven University Press
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-11 11:21:02
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In OECD countries the average expenditure on primary and secondary education institutions is about 3.5% of GDP. The investment in education has large implications for economic development and the proper functioning of democratic institutions, as well as overall well-being. However, clear consensus and guidance on which system leads to the best educational outcomes is lacking. This volume describes the resource allocation for compulsory and special needs education for a selection of well-performing countries and regions on PISA tests. By studying the funding systems in well-performing countries and regions the authors identify the elements in the respective funding systems that are associated with best outcomes and have the ideal characteristics to pursue particular goals of education systems such as equity and efficiency. The funding methods of primary and secondary education as well as special needs education are covered.

The Media and Communications Study Skills Student Guide

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ISBN: 9781912656578 9781912656561 9781912656585 9781912656592 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.16997/book42 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Linguistics --- Science (General) --- Information theory --- Media and communication --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-18 11:21:08
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"All the tips, ideas and advice given to, and requested by, MA students in Media and Communications, are brought together in an easy-to-use accessible guide to help students study most effectively. Based upon many years of teaching study skills and hundreds of lecture slides and handouts this introduction covers a range of general and generic skills that the author relates specifically towards media and communications studies. As well as the mechanics of writing and presentations, the book also shows how students can work on and engage with the critical and contemplative elements of their degrees whilst retaining motivation and refining timekeeping skills. Of course the nuts and bolts of reading, writing, listening, seminars and the dreaded dissertation and essays are covered too. In addition advice on referencing, citation and academic style is offered for those with concerns over English grammar and expression. Aimed primarily at postgraduate students, there is significant crossover with undergraduate work, so this book will also prove of use to upper level undergraduate readers whether using English as a first or second language."

Oil Wealth and Development in Uganda and Beyond

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789461663092 9789462702004 9789461663108 Year: Pages: 394 DOI: 10.11116/9789461663092 Language: English
Publisher: Leuven University Press Grant: KU Leuven
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Law --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 11:21:02
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Large quantities of oil were discovered in the Albertine Rift Valley in Western Uganda in 2006. The sound management of these oil resources and revenues is undoubtedly one of the key public policy challenges for Uganda as it is for other African countries with large oil and/or gas endowments. With oil expected to start flowing in 2021, the current book analyses how this East African country is preparing for the challenge of effectively, efficiently, and transparently managing its oil sector and resources. Adopting a multidisciplinary, comprehensive, and comparative approach, the book identifies a broad scope of issues that need to be addressed in order for Uganda to realise the full potential of its oil wealth for national economic transformation. Predominantly grounded in local scholarship and including chapters drawing on the experiences of Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya, the book blazes a trail on governance of African oil in an era of emerging producers. Oil Wealth and Development in Uganda and Beyond will be of great interest to social scientists and economic and social policy makers in oil-producing countries. It is suitable for course adoption across such disciplines as International/Global Affairs, Political Economy, Geography, Environmental Studies, Economics, Energy Studies, Development, Politics, Peace, Security and African Studies.

Critical Materials:Underlying Causes and Sustainable Mitigation Strategies

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Book Series: World Scientific Series in Current Energy Issues ISBN: 9789813271050 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 392 DOI: 10.1142/11007 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Industrial Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-30 14:59:16
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This book covers a new frontier of research in Critical Materials that provides insight in terms of the possible sustainable mitigation strategies, the complexity, broadness and multi-disciplinarity of the subject. By exploring in both "systems view" and "in-depth materials view" in light of the circular economy, this book tackles the problem of sustainable usage of materials that is closely intertwined with the energy issue and climate change. Topics covered include: geopolitics of materials, the energy-materials nexus, definitions of the criticality of materials, circular product design, the development of alternative materials (substitution), sustainable mining and recycling.

Chapter 8 The Status and Role of the alpine Cryosphere in Central Asia (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781138348882 9780429436475 Year: Pages: 23 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Environmental Sciences --- Geography --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-01 11:21:04
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The alpine cryosphere including snow, glaciers and permafrost are critical to water management in the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) and larger Central Asia (CA) under changing climate: as they store large amounts of water in its solid forms. Most cryospheric components in the Aral Sea Basin are close to melting point, and hence very vulnerable to a slight increase in air temperature with significant consequences to long-term water availability and to water resources variability and extremes. Current knowledge about different components of cryosphere and their connection to climate in the Basin and in the entire Central Asia, varies. While it is advanced in the topics of snow and glaciers, knowledge on permafrost it rather limited. Observed trends in runoff point in the direction of increasing water availability in July and August at least until mid-century and increasing possibility for water storage in reservoirs and aquifers. However, eventually this will change as glaciers waste away. Future runoff may change considerably after mid-century and start to decline if not compensated by increasing precipitation. Cryosphere monitoring systems are the basis for sound estimates of water availability and water-related hazards associated with snow, glaciers and permafrost. They require a well-distributed observational network for all cryospheric variables. Such systems need to be re-established in the Basin after the breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. This process is slowly emerging in the region. Collaboration between local operational hydro-meteorological services and academic sector, and with international research networks may improving the observing capabilities in high mountain regions of CA Asia in general and the ASB specifically.

Power and its Logic

Authors: ---
Book Series: Edition Politik ISBN: 9783837644975 9783839444979 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839444979 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 104865
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-10 11:21:02
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Power is the essence of politics. Whoever seeks to understand and master it must understand its logic. Drawing on two decades of international experience in political consulting, Dominik Meier and Christian Blum give profound and honest insights into the inner workings of power. Introducing their Power Leadership Approach, the authors provide a conceptual analysis of power and present the tools to successfully exercise it in the political domain. "Power and its Logic" is a guidebook for politicians, business leaders, civil society pioneers, public affairs consultants and for every citizen who wants to understand the unwritten rules of politics.

Sustainable Human Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039216826 9783039216833 Year: Pages: 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-683-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The concept of sustainability is important for companies both in the case of SMEs and worldwide multinational companies. Some key factors to help a company achieve its sustainability objectives are based on human resource management. Sustainable human resource management is a typical cross-functional task that becomes increasingly important at the strategic level of a company. Industry 4.0 technologies, Internet of Things, and competitive demands, as signs of globalization, have led to significant changes across the organizational structures and human resource strategies of companies. The increasing importance of sophisticated human resource strategies in the life of companies and the intention to find optimal design and operation strategies for sustainable human resource management were a motivation for launching this book. This book offers a selection of papers which explain the impact of smart human resource management on economy. Authors from 14 countries published working examples and case studies resulting from their research in this field. The aim of this book is to help students at the level of BSc, MSc, and PhD level, as well as managers and researchers, to understand and appreciate the concept, design, and implementation of sustainable human resource management solutions.

Keywords

absorbing Markov-chain --- career path --- employee structure --- machine operator --- promotion of employees --- sustainable human resource management --- characteristics of sustainable human resource management --- sustainability --- sustainable human resource management --- organizational political climate --- organizational cynicism --- personal trait regulatory focus --- employee innovation --- subordinates’ Moqi with supervisors --- perceived insider status --- knowledge-sharing --- power distance orientation --- sustainable organization --- selection --- participation --- employee empowerment --- sustainability --- job performance --- training --- sustainable HRM practices --- public sector universities --- Pakistan --- manufacturing flexibility --- high-commitment HRM system --- social exchange theory --- telework --- work–life balance --- autonomy --- teleworkers’ abilities --- social implications of telework --- strategic human resource management --- sustainable work systems --- employee motivation --- job category --- gender differences --- data science --- talent management --- Semantic Web --- skills --- analytics --- process innovation --- administrative innovation --- product development --- human resource policies --- organizational sustainability --- strategic human resource management --- collaboration --- HRM practices --- stakeholders --- social network analysis --- Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Petroleum --- female CEOs --- environment --- regulating effect --- gender culture --- sustainability --- sustainable human resource management --- labor market in postal sector --- employee satisfaction --- employee loyalty --- organizational socialization --- social support --- personal resources --- job satisfaction --- occupational stress --- sustainable human resources --- industry 4.0 --- corporate social responsibility --- conceptual framework --- youth generation

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