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Public Involvement in Knowledge Generation

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ISBN: 9781789060492 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781789060492 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-13 11:21:02
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Public Involvement in Knowledge Generation is an Open Access co-publication with KWR.&#xD;

Future drinking water infrastructure

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ISBN: 9781789060485 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781789060485 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-13 11:21:02
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Future Drinking Water Infrastructure is an Open Access co-publication with KWR.&#xD;

Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy

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ISBN: 9783038974499 / 9783038974505 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-450-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-09 11:37:07
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that can affect all ages. Although the majority of people with epilepsy can have excellent seizure control with medication, about 30% will fail anti-epileptic drugs. For those with medically intractable epilepsy, recurrent seizures lead to elevated mortality and injury risks, and the seizures themselves are socially disabling. Fortunately, for many people with intractable epilepsy, epilepsy can be cured or seizures better controlled with surgery.Localization of the seizure focus followed by surgical resection provide the best opportunities to cure epilepsy. Having a better understanding of the neuro-anatomy and physiology of epilepsy improves our ability to define the epileptic network and effectively treat epilepsy. Minimal access surgical approaches result in more rapid recovery from surgery, less pain, and more satisfied patients.For individuals without an opportunity to cure their epilepsy, new and emerging technologies can improve their quality of life by preventing injuries and reducing seizure frequency and severity.This Special Issue will highlight advances in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of epilepsy, including imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) approaches to defining the epileptic focus, understanding the epileptic network, and characterizing the anatomical substrate of epilepsy.

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

Recreational Water Illnesses

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ISBN: 9783038975786 / 9783038975793 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-579-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:46:25
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The safety of recreational waters is affected by numerous variables such as the microbiological and chemical quality of water, the number and health conditions of the users, and the correct functioning of all technological installations used for water treatment. By evaluating the various health risks related to exposure to swimming pools, spas, and surface waters, this Special Issue seeks to address the proper management of waters used for recreational purposes, both in natural and built environments.This Issue contains 12 scientific papers. The first four, three of which are literature reviews, illustrate the epidemiological picture of infections related to recreational waters, by describing cases and outbreaks caused by both traditional and emerging microorganisms. The following four papers concern the microbiological monitoring of swimming pools, gardens, estuarine areas, and therapeutic spas. Two of these also analyse the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the associated transmission risks. The relationship between microbial indicators and pathogens in recreational water is analysed by the following two papers, one of which is an experimental study on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in estuarine bank sediments and the other of which is an exhaustive literature review. The last two papers are focused on the development of risk control approaches, including the validation of questionnaire methods to quantify recreational water ingestion and the application of traditional and innovative technologies in water treatment.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Structural Lightweight Alloys

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ISBN: 9783039213870 / 9783039213887 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-388-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The need to reduce the ecological footprint of water/land/air vehicles in this era of climate change requires pushing the limits regarding the development of lightweight structures and materials. This requires a thorough understanding of their thermomechanical behavior at several stages of the production chain. Moreover, during service, the response of lightweight alloys under the simultaneous influence of mechanical loads and temperature can determine the lifetime and performance of a multitude of structural components. The present Special Issue, comprising eight original research articles, is dedicated to disseminating current efforts around the globe aimed at advancing understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of structural lightweight alloys under processing or service conditions.

Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis

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ISBN: 9783038977421 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-743-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is the definitive reference regarding the global status of melioidosis in 2018. Melioidosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), so much so that it is not even included in the WHO list of NTDs. Yet modeling suggests that it kills more people worldwide every year than diseases that are much better known, such as leptospirosis and dengue. The reasons for this under-recognition are numerous, including the fact that it mainly affects the disadvantaged rural poor in areas that are poorly supplied with the diagnostic capability to make the diagnosis. In 22 separate articles, expert authors from around the world have summarized what is known about the burden of the disease in humans and animals and the presence of the causative bacterium in the environment in their countries or regions. They have also identified the main obstacles and challenges to establishing the true burden, and to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnosis and optimal care for this all too frequently fatal disease. Rather than focusing on the theoretical risk of the use of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a biological weapon, this book highlights its importance as a clear and present danger to global public health.

Keywords

melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- diagnosis --- treatment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Laos --- Lao PDR --- melioidosis --- Sri Lanka --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Cambodia --- epidemiology --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Mexico --- Central America --- Caribbean --- epidemiology --- awareness --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Malaysia --- epidemiology --- bacteriology --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- transmission modes --- melioidosis --- Australia --- tropical medicine --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Myanmar --- Melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- western Indian Ocean --- diagnosis --- MLST --- Madagascar --- Mauritius --- Réunion --- Seychelles --- melioidosis --- B. pseudomallei --- Singapore --- clinical --- veterinary --- environmental --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Indonesia --- Papua New Guinea --- Oceania --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Thailand --- mortality --- diagnosis --- surveillance --- awareness --- treatment --- prevention --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Vietnam --- public awareness --- animal --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia --- Bangladesh --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- India --- melioidosis --- South Asia --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- South America --- melioidosis --- Africa --- Middle East --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- genomics --- public awareness --- environment --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- Hong Kong --- melioidosis --- Philippines --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- melioidosis --- Burkholderia pseudomallei --- epidemiology --- China

The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease

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ISBN: 9783039215485 / 9783039215492 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-549-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The focus on dopamine-sensitive motor symptoms, in association with the improvement of motor complications in the heterogeneous disease entity Parkinson's disease, has led to a certain standstill in research. This Special Issue provides new concepts and new ideas on the pathogenesis, genetics, and clinical maintenance of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Not only new experimental findings, but also clinical outcomes, case series, and research on alternative, non-pharmacological therapies are included. The objective is to bridge the currently increasing gap between experimental and clinical research on Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

Keywords

epigenetics --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain --- DNA methylation --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acid ?-oxidation --- long-chain acylcarnitine --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acyls --- glycerolipids --- glycerophospholipids --- sphingolipids --- sterol lipids --- lipoproteins --- ?-synuclein-mediated pathology --- disease-modifying effects --- neuroprotection --- autophagy --- cysteinyl-dopamine --- hypochlorite --- oxidative stress --- Parkinson’s disease --- redox cycling --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain iron --- motor dysfunction --- neurometabolites --- magnetic resonance imaging --- magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- GABA --- spectroscopy --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- alpha-Synuclein --- immunotherapy --- mesenchymal stem cells --- secretome --- exosomes --- Parkinson’s disease --- microRNAs --- Parkinson disease --- multiprofessional therapy --- inpatient treatment --- multimodal complex treatment --- caffeic acid --- chlorogenic acid --- rotenone --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroprotection --- dopaminergic neuron --- myenteric plexus --- enteric glial cell --- metallothionein --- Parkinson’s disease --- microbiota --- molecular mimicry --- microbiome --- alpha-synuclein --- curli --- gut-brain axis --- neurodegeneration --- glucocerebrosidase --- Parkinson’s disease --- Gaucher’s disease --- Lewy Body Dementia --- REM sleep behavior disorders --- [123I]FP-CIT-SPECT --- DAT --- nigral cells --- Parkinson’s disease --- parkinsonisms --- cell line --- differentiation --- HOG --- immature oligodendrocyte --- Krabbe’s disease --- oligodendrocyte --- mature oligodendrocyte --- MO3.13 --- myelin --- multiple sclerosis --- schizophrenia --- SH-SY5Y

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