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Optimization of Heat and Mass Exchange

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ISBN: 9783039287420 / 9783039287437 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-743-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue of Processes operates on the basis of a rigorous peer-review with a single-blind assessment and at least two independent reviewers, thereby ensuring a high quality final product. I would like to thank our reviewers, for providing the authors with constructive comments, and Editorial Board, for their professional advice that led to the final decision. I am sure that, in coming years, readers of this Special Issue will find the scientific manuscripts interesting and beneficial to their research.

Molecular Mechanisms and Genetics of Plant Resistance to Abiotic Stress

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ISBN: 9783039281220 9783039281237 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-123-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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We are currently experiencing a climate crisis that is associated with extreme weather events worldwide. Some of its most noticeable effects are increases in temperatures, droughts, and desertification. These effects are already making whole regions unsuitable for agriculture. Therefore, we urgently need global measures to mitigate the effects of climate breakdown as well as crop alternatives that are more stress-resilient. These crop alternatives can come from breeding new varieties of well-established crops, such as wheat and barley. They can also come from promoting underutilized crop species that are naturally tolerant to some stresses, such as quinoa. Either way, we need to gather more knowledge on how plants respond to stresses related to climate breakdown, such as heat, water-deficit, flooding high salinity, nitrogen, and heavy metal stress. This Special Issue provides a timely collection of recent advances in the understanding of plant responses to these stresses. This information will definitely be useful to the design of new strategies to prevent the loss of more cultivable land and to reclaim the land that has already been declared unsuitable.

Building Thermal Envelope

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ISBN: 9783039285181 9783039285198 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-519-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
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This book results from a Special Issue published in Energies, entitled “Building Thermal Envelope"". Its intent is to identify emerging research areas within the field of building thermal envelope solutions and contribute to the increased use of more energy-efficient solutions in new and refurbished buildings. Its contents are organized in the following sections: Building envelope materials and systems envisaging indoor comfort and energy efficiency; Building thermal and energy modelling and simulation; Lab test procedures and methods of field measurement to assess the performance of materials and building solutions; Smart materials and renewable energy in building envelope; Adaptive and intelligent building envelope; and Integrated building envelope technologies for high performance buildings and cities.

Keywords

hybrid heat collecting facade (HHCF) --- passive solar building --- heat transfer model --- thermal performance --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- thermal resistance --- thermal transmittance --- heat flow meter method --- average method --- convergence characteristics --- opaque exterior wall --- hot box --- thermal models --- measuring and control system --- digital temperature probes --- data post-processing --- roof window --- thermal performance --- passive building --- building component development --- natural ventilation --- air environment --- school restroom --- awning window --- CFD --- thermal anisotropy --- building envelope --- thermal management --- energy efficiency --- peak load reduction --- window thermal performance --- U-value --- window type --- simulation performance test --- actual physical performance test --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- expanded polystyrene (EPS) --- gray polystyrene --- artificial sun --- thermographic measurement --- temperature distribution --- cork --- energy retrofitting --- life cycle assessment --- life cycle costs --- thermal insulating rendering mortar --- Building Information Modeling --- cloud-based --- envelope thermal performance --- green buildings --- Green Mark --- Integrated Digital Delivery (IDD) --- traditional Diyarbak?r houses --- courtyard --- settlement --- Designbuilder simulation --- energy performance --- n/a

Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039219827 9783039219834 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-983-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In recent years, the interest of the scientific community towards efficient energy systems has significantly increased. One of the reasons is certainly related to the change in the temperature of the planet, which has increased by 0.76 °C with respect to preindustrial levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is still increasing. The European Union considers it vital to prevent global warming from exceeding 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels, as it has been proven that this will result in irreversible and potentially catastrophic changes. These changes in climate are mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions related to human activities, and can be drastically reduced by employing energy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for power production, characterized by high efficiency levels and/or based on renewable energy sources. This Special Issue, published in the Energies journal, includes 13 contributions from across the world, including a wide range of applications such as hybrid residential renewable energy systems, desiccant-based air handling units, heat exchanges for engine WHR, solar chimney systems, and other interesting topics.

Keywords

bubble absorber --- absorption cooling --- ammonia-lithium nitrate --- plate heat exchanger --- bentonite buffer material --- Ca-type bentonite --- thermal conductivity --- predictive models --- thermosyphon --- two-phase flow --- startup --- phase change --- operating state --- visualization --- fast thermal simulation --- crude oil pipeline --- batch transportation --- body-fitted coordinate-based proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model (BFC-POD-ROM) --- transport scheme determination --- waste heat recovery --- exhaust steam --- heat exchanger --- protracted fin --- turbo-electric generator --- exhaust emissions --- R744 --- two-phase ejector --- refrigeration --- dynamic simulation --- low-order model --- object-oriented modelling --- desiccant wheel --- solar heating and cooling --- hygroscopic materials --- dynamic simulations --- energy and environmental analysis --- solar chimney --- air flow --- analytical and experimental solutions --- method of calculation --- steelmaking --- electric arc furnace --- consumption --- electric energy --- melting --- refining --- tapping --- modeling --- linear regression --- genetic programming --- renewables --- ancillary services --- hybrid systems --- thermal storage --- energy storage --- microgrids --- heat pump --- model predictive control --- optimization --- Biot number --- genetic algorithms --- drying --- air-cooled steam turbine generator --- single-channel ventilation --- backflow --- radial ventilation duct --- fluid field --- ground source heat pump --- numerical and experimental studies --- ground-air heat exchanger --- geothermal energy --- computational fluid dynamics --- spirally corrugated pipe

Symmetry and Fluid Mechanics

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ISBN: 9783039284269 9783039284276 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-427-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Since the 1980s, attention has increased in the research of fluid mechanics due to its wide application in industry and phycology. Major advances have occurred in the modeling of key topics such Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, nanoparticles, thermal management, and physiological fluid phenomena in biological systems, which have been published in this Special Issue on symmetry and fluid mechanics for Symmetry. Although, this book is not a formal textbook, it will be useful for university teachers, research students, and industrial researchers and for overcoming the difficulties that occur when considering the nonlinear governing equations. For such types of equations, obtaining an analytic or even a numerical solution is often more difficult. This book addresses this challenging job by outlining the latest techniques. In addition, the findings of the simulation are logically realistic and meet the standard of sufficient scientific value.

Keywords

stagnation point flow --- numerical solution --- magnetic field --- nanofuid --- unsteady rotating flow --- porous medium --- aqueous suspensions of CNT’s --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- viscous dissipation effect --- HAM --- chemical reaction --- activation energy --- peristalsis --- couple stress fluid --- nanoparticle --- Keller-box method --- Newtonian heating --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- nonlinear stretching cylinder --- homogeneous/heterogeneous reactions --- nanofluid --- steady laminar flow --- nanofluid --- heat source/sink --- magnetic field --- stretching sheet --- SWCNT/MWCNT nanofluid --- thin needle --- classical and fractional order problems --- APCM technique --- SWCNTs --- MWCNTs --- stretched surface --- rotating system --- nanofluid --- MHD --- thermal radiation --- HAM --- nonlinear hydroelastic waves --- uniform current --- thin elastic plate --- solitary waves --- PLK method --- Permeable walls --- suction/injection --- nanofluids --- porous medium --- mixed convection --- magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- dual solution --- stability analysis --- Darcy Forchheimer model --- nanofluid --- exponential sheet --- Jeffrey fluid --- laminar g-Jitter flow --- inclined stretching sheet --- heat source/sink --- Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- Jefferey, Maxwell and Oldroyd-B fluids --- Cattaneo–Christov heat flux --- homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions --- analytical technique --- Numerical technique --- viscous fluid --- Caputo–Fabrizio time-fractional derivative --- Laplace and Fourier transformations --- side walls --- oscillating shear stress --- forced convection --- microducts --- Knudsen number --- Nusselt number --- artificial neural networks --- particle swarm optimization --- Casson fluid --- chemical reaction --- cylinder --- heat generation --- magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) --- slip --- Carreau fluid --- Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model --- convective heat boundary condition --- temperature dependent thermal conductivity --- homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions --- integer and non-integer order derivatives --- GO-W/GO-EG nanofluids --- Marangoni convection --- FDE-12 numerical method --- couple stress fluid --- Hafnium particles --- Couette–Poiseuille flow --- shooting method --- magnetic field --- Darcy–Brinkman porous medium --- viscous dissipation --- slip conditions --- porous dissipation --- permeable sheet --- stretchable rotating disk --- CNTs (MWCNTs and SWCNTs) --- velocity slip --- convective boundary condition --- OHAM --- Casson fluid model --- rotating rigid disk --- nanoparticles --- Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) --- Oil/MWCNT nanofluid --- heat transfer --- finite volume method --- laminar flow --- slip coefficient --- microchannel --- arched surface --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- molecular diameter --- Al2O3 nanoparticles --- streamlines --- isotherms --- RK scheme --- peristaltic transport --- tapered channel --- porous medium --- smart pumping for hemodialysis --- thermal radiation --- compressible viscous flow --- symmetric linear equations --- generalized finite difference scheme --- kernel gradient free --- Lagrangian approach --- Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids --- nanofluids and particle shape effects --- convective heat and mass transfer --- steady and unsteady flow problems --- multiphase flow simulations --- fractional order differential equations --- thermodynamics --- physiological fluid phenomena in biological systems

Water Intake, Body Water Regulation and Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039286560 / 9783039286577 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-657-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The purpose of this Special Issue, “Water Intake, Body Water Regulation, and Health”, is to present novel reviews and experimental data regarding hydration physiology and its implication in overall health. Water has previously been dubbed the forgotten nutrient due to humans’ and animals’ ability to subsist seemingly unchanged across a wide range of daily water intakes. However, with the introduction of stressors such as exercise, diseased states, and/or chronic high or low water intake, the homeostatic signals related to body water regulation can influence organ and whole-body health. This Special Issue will discuss water intake, the scientific rationale surrounding the U.S. and European water intake guidelines, homeostatic mechanisms, diseases related to dysfunction of water regulation, and differences in the volume and the vehicle in which the water is contained (i.e., plain water versus mixed beverages) on water intake during and following exercise. The aim is to continue discussion surrounding water, the previously forgotten nutrient, and highlight the importance of water in daily life.

Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018

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ISBN: 9783039281121 9783039281138 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-113-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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“Engineering Fluid Dynamics 2018”. The topic of engineering fluid dynamics includes both experimental as well as computational studies. Of special interest were submissions from the fields of mechanical, chemical, marine, safety, and energy engineering. We welcomed both original research articles as well as review articles. After one year, 28 papers were submitted and 14 were accepted for publication. The average processing time was 37.91 days. The authors had the following geographical distribution: China (9); Korea (3); Spain (1); and India (1). Papers covered a wide range of topics, including analysis of fans, turbines, fires in tunnels, vortex generators, deep sea mining, as well as pumps.

Keywords

axial fan --- rotating stall --- aerodynamic noise --- numerical simulation --- noise spectrum --- centrifugal pump --- radiation noise --- distribution characteristic --- acoustic energy --- experimental research --- thermosyphon --- volume of fluid --- multiphase flow --- evaporation and condensation --- centrifugal pump --- impeller --- blade wrap angle --- blade exit angle --- optimized design --- deep sea mining --- manganese nodules exploitation --- hydraulic collecting --- suction flow field --- dimensional analysis --- circumferential groove casing treatment --- sweep and lean --- CGCT-blade integrated optimization --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- flow around cylinder --- fluid structure interaction (FSI) --- hydrodynamic response --- numerical methods --- simulation and modeling --- vortex induced vibration (VIV) ratio --- gas turbine --- axial gap --- hot streak --- heat transfer --- leading edge --- global optimization --- cavitation inception --- orthogonal test --- CFD simulation --- two-stage axial fan --- numerical simulation --- abnormal blade installation angle --- rotating stall --- Tesla turbine --- fluid dynamics --- disc thickness --- disc spacing distance --- isentropic efficiency --- plug-holing --- tunnel slope --- fire --- natural ventilation --- ventilation performance --- aspect ratio --- evacuation --- fire propagation --- tunnel vehicle fire --- unsteady heat release rate --- flow control --- vortex generators --- source term --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- OpenFOAM --- wind tunnel

Energy and Technical Building Systems - Scientific and Technological Advances

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281787 9783039281794 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-179-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Future buildings require not only energy efficiency but also proper building automation and control system functionalities in order to respond to the needs of occupants and energy grids. These development paths require a focus on occupant needs such as good indoor climate, easy operability, and monitoring. Another area to be tackled is energy flexibility, which is needed to make buildings responsive to the price signals of electricity grids with increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy generation installed both in central grids and at building sites. This Special Issue is dedicated to HVAC systems, load shifting, indoor climate, and energy and ventilation performance analyses in buildings. All these topics are important for improving the energy performance of new and renovated buildings within the roadmap of low energy and nearly zero energy buildings. To improve energy performance and, at the same time, occupant comfort and wellbeing, new technical solutions are required. Occupancy patterns and recognition, intelligent building management, demand response and performance of heating, cooling and ventilation systems are some common keywords in the articles of this Special Issue contributing to future highly performing buildings with reliable operation.

Keywords

ice rinks --- air distribution solutions --- indoor air temperature gradient --- air handling unit configuration --- building energy efficiency --- building performance simulation --- energy and HVAC-systems in buildings --- energy piles --- validation --- floor slab heat loss --- energy --- computer simulations --- predictive rule-based control --- hourly CO2eq. intensity --- demand response --- energy flexibility --- n/a --- indoor environment quality --- thermal comfort --- personalized ventilation --- fuzzy logic --- environmental impact --- device efficiency --- air pollutant --- multi-households --- solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system --- end-use energy consumption --- heating --- ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) --- intelligent system management --- lighting electrical energy --- national electricity grid --- office building --- Photovoltaic system --- simulation --- Simulink® --- deep renovation --- energy retrofit --- detached house --- multi-objective optimization --- greenhouse gas emissions --- heat pump --- genetic algorithm --- occupancy density --- moisture conditions --- energy use --- indoor air quality --- ventilation rate --- KNX --- Neural Network (NN) --- Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) --- Random Tree (RT) --- Linear Regression (LR) --- Cloud Computing (CC) --- Internet of Things (IoT) --- LMS (Least Mean Squares) Adaptive filter (AF) --- gateway --- monitoring --- occupancy --- prediction --- IBM SPSS --- Intelligent Buildings (IB) --- energy savings

District Heating and Cooling Networks

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288397 / 9783039288403 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-840-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Conventional thermal power generating plants reject a large amount of energy every year. If this rejected heat were to be used through district heating networks, given prior energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in the amount of fossil fuels imported for heating. As a consequence, benefits would be experienced in the form of an increase in energy efficiency, an improvement in energy security, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases. Given that heat demand is not expected to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. Due to their cost competitiveness, flexibility in terms of the ability to use renewable energy resources (such as geothermal or solar thermal) and fossil fuels (more specifically the residual heat from combustion), and the fact that, in some cases, losses to a country/region’s energy balance can be easily integrated into district heating networks (which would not be the case in a “fully electric” future), district heating (and cooling) networks and cogeneration could become a key element for a future with greater energy security, while being more sustainable, if appropriate measures were implemented. This book therefore seeks to propose an energy strategy for a number of cities/regions/countries by proposing appropriate measures supported by detailed case studies.

Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Petroleum Industries and Geothermal Applications

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ISBN: 9783039287208 / 9783039287215 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-721-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth's core, mantle, and crust. Geothermal technologies are used to generate electricity and to heat and cool buildings. To develop accurate models for heat and mass transfer applications involving fluid flow in geothermal applications or reservoir engineering and petroleum industries, a basic knowledge of the rheological and transport properties of the materials involved (drilling fluid, rock properties, etc.)—especially in high-temperature and high-pressure environments—are needed. This Special Issue considers all aspects of fluid flow and heat transfer in geothermal applications, including the ground heat exchanger, conduction and convection in porous media. The emphasis here is on mathematical and computational aspects of fluid flow in conventional and unconventional reservoirs, geothermal engineering, fluid flow, and heat transfer in drilling engineering and enhanced oil recovery (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 injection, etc.) applications.

Keywords

dynamic hydraulic-fracturing experiments --- dynamic crack tip --- fluid front kinetics --- energy conservation analysis --- cost-effective --- frequency conversion technology (FCT) --- ventilation --- methane removal --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) --- spatiotemporal characteristics --- capacitance-resistance model --- aquifer support --- inter-well connectivity --- production optimization --- karst carbonate reservoir --- tight reservoir --- huff-‘n-puff --- fracture simulation --- enhanced oil recovery --- CO2 diffusion --- percolation model --- fractal theory --- microstructure --- critical porosity --- conductivity --- permeability --- tight oil reservoirs --- fracture compressibility --- numerical simulation --- flowback --- fracture uncertainty --- enhanced geothermal systems --- multiple parallel fractures --- semi-analytical solution --- main gas pipeline --- pressure fluctuations --- unsteady process --- multifractal theory --- fractal theory --- pore structure --- mercury intrusion porosimetry --- pore size distribution --- natural gas --- pipeline network --- continuity/momentum and energy equations coupled --- efficient simulation --- enhanced gas recovery --- longitudinal dispersion coefficient --- injection orientation --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 permeability --- Coal excavation --- coal and rock fracture --- multiple structural units (MSU) --- energy dissipation --- AE energy --- cement --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- variable viscosity --- diffusion --- underground coal gasification (UCG) --- economics --- cost of electricity (COE) --- techno-economic model --- methanol --- ammonia --- carbon capture and storage (CCS) --- carbon capture and utilization (CCU) --- electricity generation --- process simulation --- fractal --- slippage effect --- Knudsen diffusion --- surface diffusion --- apparent permeability --- wellbore temperature --- bottom-hole pressure --- multi-pressure system --- comprehensive heat transfer model --- leakage and overflow --- GSHP (ground source heat pump) --- heat transfer --- coupled heat conduction and advection --- nest of tubes --- three-dimensional numerical simulation --- sloshing --- real-scale --- highly viscous fluids --- Navier-Stokes equations --- impact pressure --- flowback --- complex fracture network --- shale oil --- porous media --- fractal theory --- particles model --- permeability --- tube bundle model --- cement slurries --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- constitutive relations --- viscosity --- yield stress --- thixotropy --- mathematical modeling --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- drilling --- porous media --- multiphase flow --- hydraulic fracturing --- geothermal --- enhanced oil recovery

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2020 (35)