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Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease

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ISBN: 9783039280407 / 9783039280414 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-041-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The range of human neurodegenerative diseases continues to pose significant unmet medical needs for societies around the world. The progressive and terminal nature of these conditions places a considerable personal burden on the individual affected but also on public health systems and health services. Tens of millions of people are indiscriminately affected by various dementias, which are rising at an alarming rate. There are no cures for many conditions, and it is clear that treatments applied as early as possible could greatly improve outcomes for patients. Therefore, new disease classification and diagnostic tools should be a key priority. Metabolomics represents a relatively new field of analytical science, which can be extremely useful in the early diagnosis of disease. The relatively unique feature of metabolites is that they sit at the intersection between the genetic background of an organism and its environment. Because many neurodegenerative diseases are not genetically inherited (instead having a range of known genetic risk factors and also a large number of unknown environmental triggers) the field of metabolomics offers great promise for the discovery of new, biologically, and clinically relevant biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders. It is already bringing forward new knowledge in terms of the mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease.

Natural Products and Drug Discovery

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ISBN: 9783039287468 / 9783039287475 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-747-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Natural products hold a prominent position in the current discovery and development of drugs and have diverse indications for both human and animal health. Plants, in particular, play a leading role as a source of specialized metabolites with medical effects. Other organisms, such as marine and terrestrial animals and microorganisms, produce very important drug candidate molecules. Specialized metabolites from these varied natural sources can be used directly as bioactive compounds or drug precursors. In addition, due to their broad chemical diversity, they can act as drug prototypes and/or be used as pharmacological tools for different targets. Some examples of natural metabolites that have been developed into useful medical drug are cardiotonic digoxin from Digitalis sp., antimalarial artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anti-cancer taxol from Taxus sp., or podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum, which served as a synthetic model for the anti-cancer etoposide. The study of natural products is still attracting great scientific attention and their current importance, as a valuable lead for drug discovery, is undebatable. I cordially invite authors to contribute original articles, as well as survey articles, that give the readers of Molecules **MOLECULES NEEDS TO BE ITALICIZED** updated and new perspectives on natural products in drug discovery, including but not limited to natural sources, identification and separation of bioactive phytochemicals, standardization, new biological targets, pre-clinical and clinical trials, pharmacological effects/side effects, and bioassays.

Keywords

cytotoxicity-guided --- phenolic derivatives --- Dryopteris fragrans --- chemical derivatization --- immuno-regulation activity --- Imperata cylindrica --- HPLC --- ESI-MS/MS --- growth inhibitory activity --- cancer --- cardamonin --- antinociceptive --- TRPV1 --- glutamate --- opioid --- siphonous green algae --- sulfated coumarins --- Dasycladus vermicularis --- isolation and quantification --- Orobanche s.l. --- Orobanchaceae --- Lamiales --- natural products --- secondary metabolites --- phenylpropanoid glycosides --- phenylethanoid glycosides --- bioactivities of natural products --- chemosystematics --- FSE --- T2DM --- GLUT4 --- Ca2+ --- L6 cell --- marine peptides --- proliferation --- migration --- angiogenesis --- zebrafish --- antioxidant activity --- flavonoids --- isoflavones --- phenolics --- proanthocyanidins --- Trifolium --- Leea indica --- HPLC-ESI-microTOF-Q-MS/MS --- phenolics --- dihydrochalcones --- Humulus lupulus --- prenylated phenolic compounds --- antimicrobial agents --- methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus --- Leishmania mexicana mexicana --- Trypanosoma brucei brucei --- Astragalus boeticus L. --- spectroscopic analysis --- cytotoxic activity --- human colon cancer cell lines --- acetylated astragalosides --- Fabaceae --- aging --- cancer --- cardiovascular disease --- dementia --- diabetes --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- Harpagophytum procumbens --- devil’s claw --- harpagoside --- spagyric tincture --- antioxidant activity --- Cleistocalyx operculatus --- 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxy-3?,5?-dimethylchalcone (DMC) --- pPancreatic cancer --- PANC-1 --- ACE inhibitory peptide --- antihypertensive --- bioactive peptides --- hypertension --- marine resources --- terpenes --- terpenoids --- antimicrobial resistance --- synergy --- Phyllanthus orbicularis --- C-glycoside --- flavonoid --- natural products --- traditional medicine --- Cuba --- Phyllanthus chamacristoides --- chromatography --- mass spectrometry --- NMR --- circular dichroism --- stereochemistry --- Fideloside --- cytokines --- anti-inflammatory activity --- metabolomics --- multivariate data analysis --- molecular network --- Bacopa monnieri --- LC-MS --- diabetic neuropathy --- neuropathic pain --- glucosinolates --- Eruca sativa --- glucoerucin --- H2S --- Kv7 potassium channels --- artemisinin --- Physcomitrella patens --- sesquiterpenoids --- malaria --- biotechnology --- ketamine --- psychosis --- cerebellum --- celastrol --- oxidative stress --- NADPH oxidases --- n/a

Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285884 / 9783039285891 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-589-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.

Keywords

type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- blood pressure --- glucose metabolism --- lipid status --- type 2 diabetes --- flavanol-rich cocoa --- postprandial --- meal --- glucose metabolism --- lipids --- blood pressure --- cocoa processing --- cocoa proteins --- classification --- extraction and characterization methods --- fermentation-related enzymes --- bioactive peptides --- heath potentials --- protein–phenol interactions --- chocolate --- hearing loss --- tinnitus --- cohort study --- cocoa --- bioactive compounds --- flavanols bioavailability --- anti-inflammatory properties --- metabolic syndrome --- oxidative stress --- cocoa by-product --- functional food --- polyphenols --- ?-glucosidase inhibition --- antidiabetic capacity --- antioxidant capacity --- methylxanthines --- fermentation --- functional volatile compounds --- starter culture --- yeast --- roasting --- chocolate --- cocoa beans --- theobromine --- cacao --- working memory --- behavior --- CaMKII --- CREB --- BDNF --- cocoa --- oligopeptides --- simulated gastrointestinal digestion --- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity --- cocoa --- chocolate --- metabolites --- biomarkers --- metabolomics --- urine --- plasma --- procyanidins --- methylxanthines --- polyphenols --- flavanols --- soluble cocoa products --- bioavailability --- human --- plasma nutrikinetics --- liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS) --- colonic bacteria --- athlete --- cocoa --- chocolate --- exercise performance --- oxidative stress --- performance --- physical exercise --- polyphenol --- skeletal muscle --- inflammation --- Italian chocolate --- quality --- cocoa-based ingredients --- monitoring --- nutrition --- cocoa --- flavan-3-ol stereoisomers --- (?)-epicatechin --- (+)-catechin --- (?)-catechin --- plasma appearance --- chiral separation --- pharmacokinetics --- one-compartment model --- n/a

Plant Protein and Proteome Altlas--Integrated Omics Analyses of Plants under Abiotic Stresses

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039219605 / 9783039219612 Year: Pages: 558 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-961-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Integrative omics of plants in response to stress conditions play more crucial roles in the post-genomic era. High-quality genomic data provide more deeper understanding of how plants to survive under environmental stresses. This book is focused on concluding the recent progress in the Protein and Proteome Atlas in plants under different stresses. It covers various aspects of plant protein ranging from agricultural proteomics, structure and function of proteins, and approaches for protein identification and quantification.

Keywords

proteomic --- postharvest freshness --- ATP synthase --- ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit (chloroplast) --- chlorophyll fluorescence parameters --- photosynthetic parameters --- drought stress --- Triticum aestivum L. --- comparative proteomic analysis --- iTRAQ --- VIGS --- Jatropha curcas --- phosphoproteomics --- seedling --- chilling stress --- regulated mechanism --- Alternanthera philoxeroides --- proteomic --- stem --- potassium --- stress --- Salinity stress --- Dunaliella salina --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation --- differentially abundant proteins --- proteomics --- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi --- salt stress --- E. angustifolia --- proteomics --- wheat --- root --- wood vinegar --- drought stress --- ROS --- ABA --- proteome --- maize --- AGPase --- phosphorylation --- brittle-2 --- phos-tagTM --- MIPS --- exon-intron structure diversity --- Gossypium hirsutum --- loss-of-function mutant --- root cell elongation --- CHA-SQ-1 --- cytomorphology --- pollen abortion --- proteomics --- wheat --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- quantitative proteomics --- regulation and metabolism --- molecular basis --- concerted network --- maize --- phosphoproteomics --- salt tolerance --- label-free quantification --- root and shoot --- sugar beet --- salt stress --- S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase --- ROS --- antioxidant enzyme --- cotton --- somatic embryogenesis --- transdifferentiation --- widely targeted metabolomics --- purine metabolism --- flavonoid biosynthesis --- molecular and biochemical basis --- transcript-metabolite network --- leaf sheath --- maturation --- transcriptional dynamics --- transcriptome --- abiotic stress --- silicate limitation --- diatom --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- natural rubber biosynthesis --- mass spectrometry --- rubber grass --- rubber latex --- shotgun proteomics --- Taraxacum kok-saghyz --- two-dimensional gel electrophoresis --- visual proteome map --- proteomics --- wheat --- drought --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- micro-exons --- constitutive splicing --- alternative splicing --- ancient genes --- domain --- radish --- heat stress --- transcriptome sequencing --- lncRNA --- miRNA --- physiological response --- Millettia pinnata --- woody oilseed plants --- seed development --- miRNA --- nitrogen fertilizer --- rice --- proteome --- cultivars --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- Nelumbo nucifera --- phylogeny --- genomics --- molecular mechanisms --- model plant --- proteomes --- iTRAQ --- filling kernel --- drought stress --- heat shock proteins --- Zea mays L. --- wucai --- low-temperature stress --- high-temperature stress --- proteomics --- redox homeostasis --- GLU1 --- glutathione --- heat response --- heat-sensitive spinach variety --- proteomics --- ROS scavenging --- inositol --- phosphatidylinositol --- phosphatase --- stress --- signaling pathway --- integrated omics --- plants under stress --- post-genomics era --- proteome atlas --- quantitative proteomics

Human Milk and Lactation

Author:
ISBN: 9783039289233 / 9783039289240 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-924-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Human milk is uniquely tailored to meet infants’ specific nutritional requirements. However, it is more than just “milk”. This dynamic and bioactive fluid allows mother–infant signalling over lactation, guiding the infant in the developmental and physiological processes. It exerts protection and life-long biological effects, playing a crucial role in promoting healthy growth and optimal cognitive development. The latest scientific advances have provided insight into different components of human milk and their dynamic changes over time. However, the complexity of human milk composition and the synergistic mechanisms responsible for its beneficial health effects have not yet been unravelled. Filling this knowledge gap will shed light on the biology of the developing infant and will contribute to the optimization of infant feeding, particularly that of the most vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of human milk will also help in elucidating the best strategies for its storage and handling. The increasing knowledge on human milk’s bioactive compounds together with the rapidly-advancing technological achievements will greatly enhance their use as prophylactic or therapeutic agents. The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further exploring the complexity of human milk composition, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects associated with breastfeeding, and the factors and determinants involved in lactation, including its promotion and support.

Keywords

human milk --- preterm --- term --- infants --- lipids --- fatty acids --- human milk fortification --- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) --- mothers’ own milk --- donor human milk --- arachidonic acid (ARA) --- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) --- bioactive factors --- carotenoids --- dietary intake --- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- human milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- prospective study --- Human Milk --- Preterm infant --- Phospholipids --- Lipidomics --- Milk Fat Globule Membrane --- breastfeeding --- late preterm --- protective factors --- promotion of breastfeeding --- breastfeeding support --- mammary gland --- immune-active proteins --- proteases --- protease inhibitors --- digestive tract --- antenatal --- expressing --- pregnancy --- video instruction --- colostrum --- breastfeeding --- online --- clinical trial --- lactation --- infants --- breastfeeding --- lactating women --- human milk benefits --- colostrum --- milk therapy --- bioactive factors --- 2?-fucosyllactose (2?FL) --- 3?-sialyllactose (3?SL) --- disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) --- human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) --- milk group --- secretor --- Lewis --- lactation --- preterm --- adipokines --- antioxidants --- breastfeeding --- cytokines --- growth factors --- human milk --- preterm --- term --- neonate --- infant --- macronutrients --- protein --- fat --- lactose --- nutrition --- passive immunization --- maternal immunoglobulins --- lactation --- prematurity --- flu vaccine --- human milk --- human milk --- omega-3 fatty acids --- docosahexaenoic acid --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- ?-linolenic acid --- dietary intake --- food frequency questionnaire --- vitamin D deficiency --- supplementation --- breastfeeding --- mothers --- infants --- human milk --- targeted metabolomics --- amino acids --- lipid metabolites --- LC-MS --- flow injection analysis --- human milk --- protein --- glycoprotein --- endogenous peptide --- breastfeeding --- hormones --- adipokines --- breast milk --- growth --- body composition --- term infant --- human milk --- term --- preterm --- calcium --- phosphorus --- magnesium --- zinc --- iron --- copper --- iodine --- selenium --- potassium --- sodium --- n-9 fatty acid --- nervonic acid --- human milk fat --- infant formula --- lactational stage --- donor human milk --- high pressure processing --- carotenoids --- antioxidant capacity --- lipids --- bile salt stimulated lipase --- preterm --- retinol --- ?-tocopherol --- inadequate intake --- nutritional status --- breast milk --- undernourishment --- dietary assessment --- multiple source method --- human milk --- celiac disease --- hormones --- fatty acids --- duration of lactation --- country --- carbohydrate --- fat --- breastfeeding difficulties --- early breastfeeding cessation --- term infants --- breastfeeding support --- human milk --- donor milk --- choline --- phosphocholine --- storage --- pasteurization --- milk banking --- pumping --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- n/a

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eng (5)


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2020 (5)