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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the bigdata analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum manybody physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for nonspecialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.
Physics  Physics  Quantum physics  Quantum optics  Statistical physics  Machine learning  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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This Open Access biography chronicles the life and achievements of the Norwegian engineer and physicist Rolf Widerøe. Readers who meet him in the pages of this book will wonder why he isn't better known. The first of Widerøe's many pioneering contributions in the field of accelerator physics was the betatron, the second, the linear accelerator, both summarized in a 27 page PhD. The betatron revolutionized the fields of cancer treatment through radiation therapy and also nondestructive testing; hospitals worldwide installed Widerøe's machine and today’s modern radiation treatment equipment is based on his inventions. The most recent renaissance of the linac provides unprecedented xray intensities at Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities in operation and construction worldwide. . Widerøe’s story also includes a fair share of drama, particularly during World War II when both Germans and the Allies vied for his collaboration. Widerøe held leading positions in multinational industry groups and was one of the consultants for building the world's largest nuclear laboratory, CERN, in Switzerland. He gained over 200 patents, received several honorary doctorates and a number of international awards. The author, a professional writer and maker of TV documentaries, has gained access to hitherto restricted archives in several countries, which provided a wealth of new material and insights, in particular in relation to the war years. She tells here a gripping and illuminating story.
Popular works  Physics  Particle acceleration  Cancer research  Physics
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This open access book focuses on the interplay between random walks on planar maps and Koebe’s circle packing theorem. Further topics covered include electric networks, the He–Schramm theorem on infinite circle packings, uniform spanning trees of planar maps, local limits of finite planar maps and the almost sure recurrence of simple random walks on these limits. One of its main goals is to present a selfcontained proof that the uniform infinite planar triangulation (UIPT) is almost surely recurrent. Full proofs of all statements are provided. A planar map is a graph that can be drawn in the plane without crossing edges, together with a specification of the cyclic ordering of the edges incident to each vertex. One widely applicable method of drawing planar graphs is given by Koebe’s circle packing theorem (1936). Various geometric properties of these drawings, such as existence of accumulation points and bounds on the radii, encode important probabilistic information, such as the recurrence/transience of simple random walks and connectivity of the uniform spanning forest. This deep connection is especially fruitful to the study of random planar maps. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in mathematics and is suitable for a singlesemester course; only a basic knowledge of graduate level probability theory is assumed.
Mathematics  Probabilities  Discrete mathematics  Geometry  Mathematical physics
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This first open access volume of the handbook series contains articles on the standard model of particle physics, both from the theoretical and experimental perspective. It also covers related topics, such as heavyion physics, neutrino physics and searches for new physics beyond the standard model. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Quantum Field Theories, String Theory  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Nuclear Physics  Accelerator Physics  Theoretical, Mathematical and Computational Physics  Standard Model of particle physics  High energy physics handbook  Collider physics  Fundamental particles and forces  HEP reference work  experimental particle physics  LandoltBoernstein elementary particles  accelerator physics experiments  physics of particle detectors  Open Access  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Particle & highenergy physics  Statistical physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc
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This third open access volume of the handbook series deals with accelerator physics, design, technology and operations, as well as with beam optics, dynamics and diagnostics. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Physics of particle detectors  beam optics  accelerator diagnostics  Highenergy physics handbook  beam diagnostics  Accelerators and beams  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Accelerator design  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics
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This second open access volume of the handbook series deals with detectors, large experimental facilities and data handling, both for accelerator and nonaccelerator based experiments. It also covers applications in medicine and life sciences. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Nuclear Energy  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Highenergy physics handbook  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Physics of particle detectors  Accelerators and beams  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Nuclear power & engineering
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This open access report explores the nature and extent of students’ misconceptions and misunderstandings related to core concepts in physics and mathematics and physics across grades four, eight and 12. Twenty years of data from the IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and TIMSS Advanced assessments are analyzed, specifically for five countries (Italy, Norway, Russian Federation, Slovenia, and the United States) who participated in all or almost all TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced assessments between 1995 and 2015. The report focuses on students’ understandings related to gravitational force in physics and linear equations in mathematics. It identifies some specific misconceptions, errors, and misunderstandings demonstrated by the TIMSS Advanced grade 12 students for these core concepts, and shows how these can be traced back to poor foundational development of these concepts in earlier grades. Patterns in misconceptions and misunderstandings are reported by grade, country, and gender. In addition, specific misconceptions and misunderstandings are tracked over time, using trend items administered in multiple assessment cycles. The study and associated methodology may enable education systems to help identify specific needs in the curriculum, improve inform instruction across grades and also raise possibilities for future TIMSS assessment design and reporting that may provide more diagnostic outcomes.
Education  International education  Comparative education  Assessment  Science education  Mathematics  Physics
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This open access book provides a comprehensive toolbox of analysis techniques for ionospheric multisatellite missions. The immediate need for this volume was motivated by the ongoing ESA Swarm satellite mission, but the tools that are described are general and can be used for any future ionospheric multisatellite mission with comparable instrumentation. In addition to researching the immediate plasma environment and its coupling to other regions, such a mission aims to study the Earth’s main magnetic field and its anomalies caused by core, mantle, or crustal sources. The parameters for carrying out this kind of work are examined in these chapters. Besides currents, electric fields, and plasma convection, these parameters include ionospheric conductance, Joule heating, neutral gas densities, and neutral winds. ;
Physics  Space sciences  Atmospheric sciences  Observations, Astronomical  Astronomy—Observations  Planetary science
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En 1914, Albert Einstein avait été invité à donner les conférences Michonis au Collège de France, organisées à partir de 1905 grâce au mécène Georges Michonis, pour y accueillir des savants étrangers. L’entrée en guerre l’empêcha de venir à Paris. Sous l’impulsion de Paul Langevin, professeur de Physique générale et expérimentale (19091946), l’invitation fut renouvelée en février 1922, peu après les tests de la théorie de la relativité générale effectués par l’astronome Sir Arthur Eddington en 1919, qui contribuèrent à la renommée mondiale d’Einstein. Le Collège se singularisera encore par la suite dans la réception des idées d’Einstein, en créant, en 1933, une chaire pour le physicien, qui avait fui l’Allemagne. Ayant déjà accepté un poste à l’Institut des études avancées de Princeton nouvellement créé (1930), Einstein n’occupera jamais cette chaire. Avec pour fil conducteur la visite d’Einstein au Collège, ce 3e volume de la collection s’intéresse à l’impact des idées d’Einstein sur la physique française et, plus largement, dans la formation des savoirs et des arts (des années 1910 jusqu’à la Seconde Guerre mondiale) en France et audelà. Contrairement à Freud et à Darwin, dont l’accueil au Collège a été difficile, accueil qui a fait l’objet de deux volumes précédents de la collection, la théorie de la relativité d’Einstein y a très tôt été présentée par Langevin, qui en a fait le sujet de ses cours dès 19101911. D’autres professeurs du Collège s’y sont intéressés (Léon Brillouin [Physique théorique, 19321949], Frédéric Joliot [Chimie nucléaire, 19371958] et André Lichnérowicz [Physique mathématique, 19521986], de même que des professeurs de philosophie, de poétique et d’histoire (Henri Bergson, Paul Valéry [Poétique, 19371945]), Lucien Febvre [Histoire de la civilisation moderne, 19331949], ou Maurice MerleauPonty [Philosophie, 19521961]) pour nous limiter à ces quelques noms. Ce volume découle d’un colloque organisé par Antoine Compagnon (Littérature française moderne et contemporaine), Jean Dalibard (Atomes et rayonnement) et JeanFrançois Joanny (Matière molle et biophysique) les 11 et 12 juin 2018, dans le cadre du projet « Passage des disciplines : histoire globale du Collège de France, xixexxe siècle », qui porte sur l’évolution des matières enseignées aussi bien que celles qui n’y ont pas été admises et qui forment un « Collège virtuel », depuis la fin du xviiie siècle jusqu’aux années 1960. Il est dirigé par Antoine Compagnon, avec la collaboration de Céline Surprenant et reçoit le soutien financier de PSL (20162019), et de la Fondation Hugot.
history  history of ideas  history of literature  history of sciences  poetics  physics  philosophy  social sciences
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This open access book summarizes the latest scientific findings regarding the biological effects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in 2011. Various cases of changes in animals and organisms have been reported since the FNPP accident. However, it is often unknown whether they are actually due to radiation, since the dose or doserate are not necessarily associated with the changes observed. This book brings together the works of radiation biologists and ecologists to provide reliable radioecology data and gives insight into future radioprotection. The book examines the environmental pollution and radiation exposure, and contains valuable data from abandoned livestock in the exevacuation zone and from wild animals including invertebrates and vertebrates, aqueous and terrestrial animals, and plants that are subjected to longterm exposure in the area still affected by radiation. It also analyzes dose evaluation, and offers new perspectives gained from the accident, as well as an overview for future studies to promote radioprotection of humans and the ecosystem. Since the biological impact of radiation is influenced by various factors, it is difficult to scientifically define the effects of lowdose/lowdoserate radiation. However, the detailed research data presented can be combined with the latest scientific and technological advances, such as artificial intelligence, to provide new insights in the future. This book is a unique and valuable resource for researchers, professionals and anyone interested in the impact of exposure to radiation or contamination with radioactive materials.
Life sciences  Animal genetics  Radiation protection  Radiation—Safety measures  Cancer research  Radiology  Human physiology  Biophysics  Biological physics
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