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The multiple roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195251 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-525-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance have most commonly been viewed in the context of human use and effects. However, both have co-existed in nature for millennia. Recently the roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes have started to be discussed in terms of functions other than bacterial inhibition and protection. This special topic will focus on both the traditional role of antibiotics as warfare mechanisms and their alternative roles and uses within nature such as antibiotics as signals or communication mechanisms, antibiotic selection at low concentrations, the non-specific role of resistance mechanisms in nature: e.g. efflux pumps, evolution of antibiotic resistance and the role of persisters in natural antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

Microbiology --- mobile elements --- Plasmids --- Soil --- Water --- human --- environment --- Standards --- risk

Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

Brief Interventions for Risky Drinkers

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198870 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-887-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alcohol is the sixth leading risk factor for disability and premature death all over the world, and one of the leading causes of premature mortality in western societies; it is a leading risk factor for death in young and middle-age males. Heavy drinking accounts for about two thirds of the burden of disease attributable to alcohol. In the early 1980s, screening and brief interventions (SBI) in primary health care settings were proposed as effective strategies to identify risky drinkers and to help them reduce their drinking. Since then, a growing body of evidence, including several meta-analysis and Cochrane reviews, has shown the efficacy and effectiveness of SBI in primary health settings. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of SBI has not been insufficient to facilitate its general implementation in the routines of primary health care physicians, and in fact the dissemination of SBI has proven to be a difficult business. Qualitative and quantitative research has identified most of the facilitators and barriers for its implementation, and publicly funded research has been earmarked to address the dissemination problems worldwide. Some examples are the World Health Organization Phase III and Phase IV studies on the identification and management of alcohol-related problems in primary care, EU funded projects (PHEPA, AMPHORA, ODHIN, BISTAIRS), the UK SIPS trials and the SBIRT developments sponsored by the Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the USA. The efficacy and effectiveness of SBI in primary health is now well established, but there are still some questions that remain unsolved: which practitioners should deliver them; what length should they be; is there a need for booster sessions; is there added value of a motivational approach? These questions, together with other relevant aspects of SBI, need ongoing research. In recent years, SBIs have been tested in settings other than primary health care, including hospitals, accident and emergency rooms, criminal justice, colleges and universities, social services and pharmacies. In some of those areas, the evidence is scarce (for example, pharmacies) while in others it is very promising (for example, students and hospitals). New technologies have also offered the possibility of online tools, and, in the last few years, different digital-based applications have been tested successfully as new ways to deliver effective SBIs to larger amounts of people. Brief interventions have also spread to drugs other than alcohol. This book aims to be an update of the state-of-the art of brief advice. It is a compilation of articles published by some of the most relevant researchers in the field in Frontiers in Psychiatry between 2014 and 2016.

Decision making under uncertainty

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194667 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-466-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Most decisions in life are based on incomplete information and have uncertain consequences. To successfully cope with real-life situations, the nervous system has to estimate, represent and eventually resolve uncertainty at various levels. A common tradeoff in such decisions involves those between the magnitude of the expected rewards and the uncertainty of obtaining the rewards. For instance, a decision maker may choose to forgo the high expected rewards of investing in the stock market and settle instead for the lower expected reward and much less uncertainty of a savings account. Little is known about how different forms of uncertainty, such as risk or ambiguity, are processed and learned about and how they are integrated with expected rewards and individual preferences throughout the decision making process. With this Research Topic we aim to provide a deeper and more detailed understanding of the processes behind decision making under uncertainty.

Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194681 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-468-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely limited with gemcitabine extending the survival by a disappointing few weeks. The failure of several randomized clinical trials in the past decade investigating the therapeutic efficacy of different mono- and combination therapies reflects our limited knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology. In addition, biomarkers for early detection are sorely missing. Several pancreatic cancer risk factors have been identified. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms linking these risk factors to cancer development are poorly understood. Well known possible and probable risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Age is certainly of the most important risk factors as most cases of pancreatic cancer occur in the elderly population. Smoking ten cigarettes a day increases the risk by 2.6 times and smoking a pack per day increases it by 5 folds. Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by up to 13 times. Patients with hereditary forms of chronic pancreatitis have an even higher risk. Obesity, a growing global health problem, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by about 1.5 fold. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by at least two-fold. The more recent the onset of diabetes, the stronger the correlation with pancreatic cancer is. In addition, heavy alcohol drinking, a family history of the disease, male gender and African American ethnicity are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by several genetic alterations including mutations in the Kras proto-oncogene and mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16. While Kras mutations are currently thought as early events present in a certain percentage of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), known precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, mutations in tumor suppressor genes, e.g. p53, seem to accumulate later during progression. In addition, several intracellular signaling pathways are amplified or enhanced, including the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling modules. Overall, these genetic alterations lead to enhanced and sustained proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasive and metastatic potential, and angiogenesis, all hallmarks of cancers. The scope of this Research Topic is to collect data and knowledge of how risk factors increase the risk of initiation/progression of pancreatic cancer. Of particular interest are potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and driving signaling pathways will ultimately allow the development of targeted interventions to disrupt the risk factor-induced cancer development. This Research Topic is interested in a broad range of risk factors, including genetic and environmental, and welcomes original papers, mini and full reviews, and hypothesis papers. Manuscripts that address the effect of combination of risk factors on pancreatic cancer development and progression are of great interest as well.

Applications of Novel Analytical Methods in Epidemiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456581 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-658-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The repertoire of quantitative analytical techniques in disciplines such as ecology, decision science, and evolutionary biology has grown, in part enabled by the development and increased availability of computational resources. Integration of cutting-edge, quantitative tools into veterinary epidemiology that have been borrowed from such disciplines has offered opportunities to advance the study of disease dynamics in animal populations, to improve and guide decision-making related to disease prevention, control, or eradication. Furthermore, the need to explore new analytical methods for veterinary epidemiology has been driven by the increasing availability and complexity of animal disease data. The objective of this e-book is to contribute to current methods in epidemiology by 1) presenting and discussing novel analytical tools that help advance our understanding of epidemiology; and 2) demonstrating how inferences emerging from the application of novel analytical tools can be incorporated into decision-making related to animal health. The e-book constitutes a collection of articles that explore the applications of a variety of analytical methods such as machine learning, Bayesian risk assessment and an advanced form of social network analysis in the modern epidemiologic study of animal diseases.

Infection and Inflammation: Potential Triggers of Sudden Infant Deaths

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450497 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-049-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There is a growing body of evidence that infectious agents or their products contribute to events leading to unexpected infant deaths. This issue summarizes the current information on the interactions between genetic background of the infant, environmental and developmental risk factors, and the microbial flora of the infant that could trigger lethal responses to common infections.

Neuropsychopharmacology of Psychosis: Relation of Brain Signals, Cognition and Chemistry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193356 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-335-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Previous research over the past decades has identified diverse neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis. In particular, by combining a variety of different neuroimaging modalities, it has been shown that psychotic states and the actual transition phase from a clinical high-risk state to established psychosis is characterized by structural, functional and neurochemical changes across different brain regions.Further evidence revealed that maybe not only focal brain abnormalities are characteristic for psychosis but specifically also an abnormal functional integration among various brain areas. Some evidence also suggests that dysfunctional brain connectivity proceeds during the development of psychosis when subjects perform a cognitive task. Notably, altered brain connectivity during cognitive challenges was often found to be associated with psychopathological measures, suggesting a mechanistic relation between functional network integrity and the clinical expression of psychosis.Several works proposed that disordered brain connectivity in psychosis results from abnormal N-methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, which can be mediated by other neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine or serotonin. Specific chemically mediated changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to abnormal functional integration among brain regions and in consequence to impaired learning performances and inferences. Model-based connectivity investigations on synaptic signalling demonstrated for example that manipulation of the NMDA or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor system altered synaptic plasticity in healthy volunteers, which was predictive for subjects’ cognitive performance and psychopathology. In patients with psychosis, the activity in the prefrontal cortex during the processing of prediction errors, a specific form of learning, which is conveyed via synaptic connections, was linked with individuals’ formation of delusions. These results fit well with many works suggesting that psychotic symptoms or also drug-induced psychosis-like experiences can be explained by disturbances within a hierarchically organized neuronal network, leading to maladaptive integrations of new incoming evidence and thereby to false formations of prediction errors and false beliefs.In this research topic, we like to cover the most recent neurobiological correlates for early stage psychosis and in particular for the prediction of psychosis by using different neurophysiological measures (e.g. structural and functional MRI, EEG, DTI or PET). Studies exploring effective connectivity or complex brain networks such as small-world properties with techniques like dynamic causal modelling, structural equation modelling, or graph theory analysis are highly appreciated. Very welcome are studies proving a link between clinical features such as psychopathology and cognition, brain signals, and chemistry (also in regard of antipsychotic treatments or substance-induced psychotic states). Moreover, environmental factors that may influence psychosis onset or its’ developmental processes will be brought together with a diversity of different research modalities. We also collect critical reviews, mini-reviews or theoretical reflections from leading international researcher and clinicians in this field. The purpose of our research topic is intended to provide a state-of-the-art cognitive perspective to consider developing psychosis, which might shed more lights into the pathophysiological and neurobiological mechanisms of psychosis.

Improving Bayesian Reasoning: What Works and Why?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197453 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-745-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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We confess that the first part of our title is somewhat of a misnomer. Bayesian reasoning is a normative approach to probabilistic belief revision and, as such, it is in need of no improvement. Rather, it is the typical individual whose reasoning and judgments often fall short of the Bayesian ideal who is the focus of improvement. What have we learnt from over a half-century of research and theory on this topic that could explain why people are often non-Bayesian? Can Bayesian reasoning be facilitated, and if so why? These are the questions that motivate this Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic. Bayes' theorem, named after English statistician, philosopher, and Presbyterian minister, Thomas Bayes, offers a method for updating one’s prior probability of an hypothesis H on the basis of new data D such that P(H|D) = P(D|H)P(H)/P(D). The first wave of psychological research, pioneered by Ward Edwards, revealed that people were overly conservative in updating their posterior probabilities (i.e., P(D|H)). A second wave, spearheaded by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, showed that people often ignored prior probabilities or base rates, where the priors had a frequentist interpretation, and hence were not Bayesians at all. In the 1990s, a third wave of research spurred by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby and by Gerd Gigerenzer and Ulrich Hoffrage showed that people can reason more like a Bayesian if only the information provided takes the form of (non-relativized) natural frequencies. Although Kahneman and Tversky had already noted the advantages of frequency representations, it was the third wave scholars who pushed the prescriptive agenda, arguing that there are feasible and effective methods for improving belief revision. Most scholars now agree that natural frequency representations do facilitate Bayesian reasoning. However, they do not agree on why this is so. The original third wave scholars favor an evolutionary account that posits human brain adaptation to natural frequency processing. But almost as soon as this view was proposed, other scholars challenged it, arguing that such evolutionary assumptions were not needed. The dominant opposing view has been that the benefit of natural frequencies is mainly due to the fact that such representations make the nested set relations perfectly transparent. Thus, people can more easily see what information they need to focus on and how to simply combine it. This Research Topic aims to take stock of where we are at present. Are we in a proto-fourth wave? If so, does it offer a synthesis of recent theoretical disagreements? The second part of the title orients the reader to the two main subtopics: what works and why? In terms of the first subtopic, we seek contributions that advance understanding of how to improve people’s abilities to revise their beliefs and to integrate probabilistic information effectively. The second subtopic centers on explaining why methods that improve non-Bayesian reasoning work as well as they do. In addressing that issue, we welcome both critical analyses of existing theories as well as fresh perspectives. For both subtopics, we welcome the full range of manuscript types.

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