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Lipid Signaling in T Cell Development and Function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196975 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-697-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Abstract

Lipids are best known as energy storing molecules and core-components of cellular membranes, but can also act as mediators of cellular signaling. This is most prominently illustrated by the paramount importance of the phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways in many cells, including T cells and cancer cells. Both of these enzymes use the lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2) as their substrate. PLCs produce the lipid product diacylglycerol (DAG) and soluble inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a membrane tether for protein kinase C and RasGRP proteins. IP3 is released into the cytosol and controls calcium release from internal stores. The PI3K lipid product phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PIP3) controls signaling by binding and recruiting effector proteins such as Akt and Itk to cellular membranes. Recent research has unveiled important signaling roles for many additional phosphoinositides and other lipids. The articles in this volume highlight how multiple different lipids govern T cell development and function through diverse mechanisms and effectors. In T cells, lipids can orchestrate signaling by organizing membrane topology in rafts or microdomains, direct protein function through covalent lipid-modification or non-covalent lipid binding, act as intracellular or extracellular messenger molecules, or govern T cell function at the level of metabolic regulation. The cellular activity of certain lipid messengers is moreover controlled by soluble counterparts, exemplified by symmetric PIP3/inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP4) signaling in developing T cells. Not surprisingly, lipid producing and metabolizing enzymes have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets for immune disorders, leukemias and lymphomas.

Keywords

Lipid --- T cell --- eicosanoid --- PI3K --- Vitamin D --- diacylglyerol --- Inositol --- Pten --- SHIP --- Adipokine

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Abstract

The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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