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Connecting Grammaticalisation

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Book Series: Studies in Functional and Structural Linguistics ISBN: 9789027215758 9789027284136 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.1075/sfsl.65 Language: English
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100366
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 11:01:51
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This monograph presents a view on grammaticalisation radically different from standard views centering around the cline of grammaticality. Grammar is seen as a complex sign system, and, as a consequence, grammatical change always comprises semantic change. What unites morphology, word order, constructional syntax and other grammatical subsystems is their paradigmatic organisation. The traditional concept of an inflexional paradigm is generalised as the structuring principle of grammar. Grammatical change involves paradigmatic restructuring, and in the process of grammatical change morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages, the book offers both a broad general discussion of theoretical issues and three case studies.

Keywords

Linguistics

Integrating Gestures

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Book Series: Gesture Studies ISBN: 9789027228451 9789027287205 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.1075/gs.4 Language: English
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100367
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 11:02:07
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Gestures convey information about culture, discourse, thought, intentionality, emotion, intersubjectivity, cognition, and first and second language acquisition. Additionally, they are used by non-human primates to communicate with their peers and with humans. Consequently, the modern field of gesture studies has attracted researchers from a number of different disciplines such as anthropology, cognitive science, communication, neuroscience, psycholinguistics, primatology, psychology, robotics, sociology and semiotics. This volume presents an overview of the depth and breadth of current research in gesture. Its focus is on the interdisciplinary nature of gesture. The chapters included in the volume are divided into six themes: the nature and functions of gesture, first language development and gesture, second language effects on gesture, gesture in the classroom and in problem solving, gesture aspects of discourse and interaction, and gestural analysis of music and dance.

Keywords

Linguistics

Stylistic Use of Phraseological Units in Discourse

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ISBN: 9789027211767 9789027287694 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.1075/z.159 Language: English
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100364
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-10 11:02:29
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This interdisciplinary study presents the cutting-edge state of theoretical and applied research in phraseology. The author elaborates key terminology and theoretical concepts of phraseology, while challenging some prevailing assumptions. Exploration of phraseological meaning across sentence boundaries is supported by ample textual illustrations of stylistic use ranging from Old English to Modern English. The book contains innovative research in the discourse-level features of phraseological units from a cognitive perspective, along with creative use of phraseological metaphor, metonymy and allusion, including multimodal discourse. The author argues for the need to raise stylistic awareness among teachers and learners, translators, lexicographers and advertisers. This is the revised and extensively expanded new edition of 'Phraseological Units in Discourse: Towards Applied Stylistics' (2001). It received honourable mention at the ESSE Book Award 2012.

Keywords

Linguistics

Inside the Antisemitic Mind

Authors: ---
Book Series: The Tauber Institute Series for the Study of European Jewry ISBN: 9781611689839 9781512600773 Year: Pages: 454 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625675 Language: English
Publisher: Brandeis University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100126
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-17 11:01:19
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Antisemitism is on the rise in Europe, sometimes manifest in violent acts against Jews, but more commonly noticeable in everyday discourse. This innovative empirical study examines written examples of antisemitism in contemporary Germany. Drawing on 14,000 letters and e-mails sent between 2002 and 2012 to the Central Council of Jews in Germany and the Israeli embassy in Berlin, as well communications sent between 2010 and 2011 to Israeli embassies across Europe, the authors show how language plays a crucial role in activating antisemitism across a broad spectrum of social classes, investigate the role of emotions in antisemitic argumentation patterns, and analyze “anti-Israelism” as the dominant form of contemporary hatred of Jews.

Keywords

Linguistics

Germania Semitica

Authors: ---
Book Series: Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] ISBN: 9783110300949 9783110301090 Year: Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101064
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-21 11:02:20
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Germania Semitica explores prehistoric language contact in general, and attempts to identify the languages involved in shaping Germanic in particular. The book deals with a topic outside the scope of other disciplines concerned with prehistory, such as archaeology and genetics, drawing its conclusions from the linguistic evidence alone, relying on language typology and areal probability. The data for reconstruction comes from Germanic syntax, phonology, etymology, religious loan names, and the writing system, more precisely from word order, syntactic constructions, word formation, irregularities in phonological form, lexical peculiarities, and the structure and rules of the Germanic runic alphabet. It is demonstrated that common descent is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for reconstruction. Instead, lexical and structural parallels between Germanic and Semitic languages are explored and interpreted in the framework of modern language contact theory.

Keywords

Linguistics

Methods in Contemporary Linguistics

Authors: ---
Book Series: Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] ISBN: 9783110284669 9783110275681 Year: Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101063
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-21 11:02:20
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The present volume is a broad overview of methods and methodologies in linguistics, illustrated with examples from concrete research. It collects insights gained from a broad range of linguistic sub-disciplines, ranging from core disciplines to topics in cross-linguistic and language-internal diversity or to contributions towards language, space and society. Given its critical and innovative nature, the volume is a valuable source for students and researchers of a broad range of linguistic interests.

Keywords

Linguistics

The semantic transparency of English compound nouns

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Book Series: Morphological Investigations ISBN: 9783961100316 9783961100309 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1134595 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103533
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 11:01:02
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What is semantic transparency, why is it important, and which factors play a role in its assessment? This work approaches these questions by investigating English compound nouns. The first part of the book gives an overview of semantic transparency in the analysis of compound nouns, discussing its role in models of morphological processing and differentiating it from related notions. After a chapter on the semantic analysis of complex nominals, it closes with a chapter on previous attempts to model semantic transparency. The second part introduces new empirical work on semantic transparency, introducing two different sets of statistical models for compound transparency. In particular, two semantic factors were explored: the semantic relations holding between compound constituents and the role of different readings of the constituents and the whole compound, operationalized in terms of meaning shifts and in terms of the distribution of specifc readings across constituent families.

Keywords

Linguistics

The languages of Malta

Authors: ---
Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783961100712 9783961100705 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1181783 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103529
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 11:01:02
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The purpose of this volume is to present a snapshot of the state of the art of research on the languages of the Maltese islands, which include spoken Maltese, Maltese English and Maltese Sign Language.Malta is a tiny, but densely populated country, with over 422,000 inhabitants spread over only 316 square kilometers. It is a bilingual country, with Maltese and English enjoying the status of official languages. Maltese is a descendant of Arabic, but due to the history of the island, it has borrowed extensively from Sicilian, Italian and English. Furthermore, local dialects still coexist alongside the official standard language. The status of English as a second language dates back to British colonial rule, and just as in other former British colonies, a characteristic Maltese variety of English has developed. To these languages must be added Maltese Sign Language, which is the language of the Maltese Deaf community. This was recently recognised as Malta’s third official language by an act of Parliament in 2016.

Keywords

Linguistics

Grammatical theory

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Book Series: Textbooks in Language Sciences ISBN: 9783961100774 9783961100781 9783961100743 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1193241 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103530
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 11:01:02
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This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic theorizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Grammar, Head-​Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective theory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language.The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothesis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are discussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured.

Keywords

Linguistics

Dynamische Modellierung von Artikulation und prosodischer Struktur

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Book Series: Studies in Laboratory Phonology ISBN: 9783961100699 9783961100682 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1188764 Language: German
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103527
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 11:01:02
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Die Artikulatorische Phonologie (Catherine Browman und Louis Goldstein) wurde als Alternative zu segmentalen Ansätzen entwickelt. So nimmt die segmentale Phonologie an, dass nur distinkte Information gespeichert wird, die dann mit Hilfe von Regeln und Rechenprinzipien von der kategorialen Welt der Symbole in die kontinuierliche Welt der physikalischen Repräsentation übersetzt wird. Die Artikulatorische Phonologie hingegen nimmt an, dass auch kontinuierliche Information wie beispielsweise sprecher- oder situationsbedingte Variationen als Teil des Sprachsystems gespeichert werden. Variabilität wird hier als Teil des linguistischen Systems betrachtet, das konkret Aufschluss über zugrundeliegende Strukturen gibt. Im Modell der Artikulatorischen Phonologie wird Sprache als dynamisches System betrachtet und somit phonetische und phonologische Information integriert.Die Grundeinheiten der Artikulatorischen Phonologie sind nicht Segmente oder Merkmale, sondern artikulatorische Gesten. Diese legen linguistische relevante Konstriktionen wie beispielsweise einen Vollverschluss der Zungenspitze an den Alveolen sowie eine glottale Öffnungsgeste für Stimmlosigkeit bei der Produktion von /t/. Die Einbeziehung der zeitlichen Domäne ermöglicht im Gegensatz zu segmentalen Ansätzen die Abbildung natürlicher Variabilität. So kann beispielsweise im Falle von /t/ der Grad der Aspiration direkt aus der zeitlichen Anordnung der glottalen und oralen Geste abgeleitet werden: Ist die glottale Geste länger als die Zungenspitzengeste aktiviert, so entsteht auf akustischer Oberfläche Aspiration. Artikulatorische Gesten enkodieren darüber hinaus den kontextuellen Einfluss (Koartikulation in Form von Synergien zwischen Organgruppen) und können direkt den Einfluss höhere linguistischer Strukturen wie der prosodischen Hierarchie abbilden.Das vorliegende Buch stellt eine Einführung in die Artikulatorische Phonologie dar. Es richtet sich an Leserinnen und Leser, die phonetische Grundkenntnisse besitzen und sich mit der Artikulatorischen Phonologie beschäftigen. Darüber hinaus werden neben einer Einführung in das Model auch neuere Arbeiten und aktuelle Weiterentwicklungen aufgezeigt, insbesondere die Implementierung prosodischer Aspekte in die Artikulatorische Phonologie. Somit eignet sich das Buch auch für Leserinnen und Leser, die bereits mit der Artikulatorischen Phonologie in Kontakt gekommen sind, aber ihr Wissen vertiefen möchten. Zur Veranschaulichung werden Beispiele aus verschiedenen Sprachen gegeben, darunter Deutsch, Katalanisch, Italienisch, Polnisch, Mandarin und Tashlhiyt Berber.

Keywords

Linguistics

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