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Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196135 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-613-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date most BCIs are aimed at assisting patients for whom brain signals could form an alternative output channel as opposed to more common human output channels, like speech and moving the hands. However, brain signals (possibly in combination with other physiological signals) also form an output channel above and beyond the more usual ones: they can potentially provide continuous, online information about an individual’s cognitive and affective state without the need of conscious or effortful communication. The provided information could be used in a number of ways. Examples include monitoring cognitive workload through EEG and skin conductance for adaptive automation or using ERPs in response to errors to correct for a behavioral response. While Passive BCIs make use of online (neuro)physiological responses and close the interaction cycle between a user and a computer system, (neuro)physiological responses can also be used in an offline fashion. Examples of this include detecting amygdala responses for neuromarketing, and measuring EEG and pupil dilation as indicators of mental effort for optimizing information systems. The described field of applied (neuro)physiology can strongly benefit from high quality scientific studies that control for confounding factors and use proper comparison conditions. Another area of relevance is ethics, ranging from dubious product claims, acceptance of the technology by the general public, privacy of users, to possible effects that these kinds of applications may have on society as a whole. In this Research Topic we aimed to publish studies of the highest scientific quality that are directed towards applications that utilize spontaneously, effortlessly generated neurophysiological signals (brain and/or other physiological signals) reflecting cognitive or affective state. We especially welcomed studies that describe specific real world applications demonstrating a significant benefit compared to standard applications. We also invited original, new kinds of (proposed) applications in this area as well as comprehensive review articles that point out what is and what is not possible (according to scientific standards) in this field. Finally, we welcomed manuscripts on the ethical issues that are involved. Connected to the Research Topic was a workshop (held on June 6, during the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, June 3-7, 2013, Asilomar, California) that brought together a diverse group of people who were working in this field. We discussed the state of the art and formulated major challenges, as reflected in the first paper of the Research Topic.

Inside War. Understanding the Evolution of Organised Violence in the Global Era

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ISBN: 9783110471243 9783110471700 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.1515/9783110471243 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 16:12:20
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The post-Cold War era was characterised by both the recurrence of state wars and the spread of forms of organised violence other than wars. Asymmetric warfare between alliances led by the USA and groups of insurgents, such as those witnessed in Afghanistan and Iraq, coexist alongside domestic conflicts, such as that of former Yugoslavia and, more recently, Libya and Syria; and still other conflicts involving gangs, mafias or narco-traffickers. The massive military-industrial complexes conceived in the context of the threat of nuclear Armageddon are still there of course, but they now coexist with irregular armies of insurgents carrying out massacres through the use of light weapons and improvised explosives devices.This book oppose the idea that this situation prefigures the return to an anarchical, pre-political condition, by assuming that new wars are rather the product of the blurring of the public-private divide, induced by the end of the Cold War, together with globalisation. As a consequence, also the internal and external factors are blurred; and ever more permeable and elusive is becoming even the border between war and crime.Inside War goes beyond a state-centered analysis and adopts an interdisciplinary and multilayered approach, and is intended to foster the dialogue among researchers from different fields. It places war at the core of analysis, assuming that the reality of war is what we make of it; and that the only insurmountable limit to our comprehension of war is our way of knowing and representing it.Fabio Armao teaches courses in Politics and Globalisation Processes, and Criminal Systems. He has been Visiting Professor at Cornell University, and co-convenor of the Standing Group on Organized Crime, European Consortium for Political Research. Founding member of T.wai (Torino World Affair Institute), he is also member of the Editorial Board of ‘Global Crime’. His research interests and publications focus on international wars and geopolitics, on violent non-state actors and transnational organised crime, and on urban security.

Breaking Down the State: Protestors Engaged

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Book Series: Protest and Social Movements ISBN: 9789089647597 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.5117/9789089647597 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-01 11:01:26
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In this important book, Jan Willem Duyvendak and James M. Jasper bring together an internationally acclaimed group of contributors to demonstrate the complexities of the social and political spheres in various areas of public policy. By breaking down the state into the players who really make decisions and pursue coherent strategies, these essays provide new perspectives on the interactions between political protestors and the many parts of the state—from courts, political parties, and legislators to police, armies, and intelligence services. By analyzing politics as the interplay of various players within structured arenas, Breaking Down the State provides an innovative look at law and order versus opposition movements in countries across the globe.

Keywords

the state --- protest --- social movements --- arenas --- strategy --- players

Late-career Risks in Changing Welfare States

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Book Series: Changing Welfare States ISBN: 9789089646774 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_621791 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-04 11:01:17
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Motivated by debates about welfare state retrenchment and growing economic insecurity, this book takes a closer look at the situation of older workers in Germany and the US. It first provides an in-depth account of country differences in key social programs - and of crucial changes since the 1980s. To better understand the impact of these changes on the lives of ordinary citizens, the second part of the book uses household panel data to examine the changing financial consequences of late-career job loss and retirement. Income losses due to men's retirement have grown in both countries, consistent with gradual declines in the generosity of public pension schemes and other public programs. In the US, income trajectories have also become more heterogeneous, with more workers suffering very large income losses and having low income after retirement. Changes in employer-sponsored pensions, in particular the rise of defined-contribution plans, appear to have been a major factor behind this trend. In Germany, where generous early retirement options were phased out after the mid-1990s, there is evidence that workers are paying a growing price for late-career job loss or health problems, which often lead to involuntary early retirement.

Prima e dopo Cavour: La musica tra Stato Sabaudo e Italia Unita (1848-1870). Atti del Convegno Internazionale Napoli, 11-12 novembre 2011

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Book Series: Clio: Saggi di scienze storiche, archeologiche e storico-artistiche ISSN: 2532-4608 ISBN: 9788888904191 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: 348 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-88904-19-1 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-05 17:29:14
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This volume is the result of the “Before and After Cavour: the music between Sabaudo State and United Kingdom (1848-1870)” conference, held in 2011 during the celebrations for the bicentenary of the birth of Cavour and the 150th of the Italian unification

A Spectre is Haunting Arabia

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Book Series: Edition Politik ISBN: 9783837632255 9783839432259 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839432259 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103375
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:57
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Radical ideologies may manifest differently at first, but they do follow a similar logic: truth claims, promises of salvation and a unifying common enemy. In Yemen's transition process today, the secessionist movement Al-Hirak has summoned the spirit of South Yemen, the only Marxist state in Arabia. This book meticulously describes how East Germany supported the implantation of this alien ideology in Yemen through its policy of #on("i")#"Socialist state- and nation-building"#off("i")#. In the same breath, the analysis captures the GDR's activities in the Middle East and their vital role in Moscow's Cold War strategy. Last but least, the study provides one of the few compact overviews of East German foreign policy in the English language of today.

Gemeinwohl und Seelenheil

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Book Series: Edition Politik ISBN: 9783837629651 9783839429655 Year: DOI: 10.14361/transcript.9783839429655 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103330
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:58
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Das Prinzip der Trennung von Religion und Politik, das längst als Standardantwort auf die Frage nach der Legitimität der religionspolitischen Ordnung im demokratischen Verfassungsstaat gilt, wird in dieser Studie einer kritischen Überprüfung unterzogen. Ahmet Cavuldak rekonstruiert die Entstehungsgeschichte der religionspolitischen Ordnungen Frankreichs, der USA und Deutschlands entlang der wichtigsten Schwellenepochen und Aushandlungsprozesse. Anhand der Werke von Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Alexis de Tocqueville und Jürgen Habermas stellt er drei "exemplarische" Antworten auf die Frage nach dem rechten Verhältnis von Religion und Politik in der Demokratie vor. Diese ideengeschichtliche Auseinandersetzung mündet in eine systematische Diskussion der zur Rechtfertigung der Trennung von Religion und Politik genannten Gründe. Schließlich wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob - und wenn ja, inwiefern - die religionspolitischen Lernprozesse des europäischen, lateinchristlich geprägten Erfahrungsraume

Nonlinear Gaussian Filtering : Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriften zur Anthropomatik / Lehrstuhl für Interaktive Echtzeitsysteme, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ; Fraunhofer-Inst. für Optronik, Systemtechnik und Bildauswertung IOSB Karlsruhe ISSN: 18636489 ISBN: 9783731503385 Year: Volume: 19 Pages: V, 270 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045491 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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By restricting to Gaussian distributions, the optimal Bayesian filtering problem can be transformed into an algebraically simple form, which allows for computationally efficient algorithms. Three problem settings are discussed in this thesis: (1) filtering with Gaussians only, (2) Gaussian mixture filtering for strong nonlinearities, (3) Gaussian process filtering for purely data-driven scenarios. For each setting, efficient algorithms are derived and applied to real-world problems.

Advanced Topics in Crystallization

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Book Series: 2015-05-06 ISBN: 9789535121251 9789535142249 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.5772/58651 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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In nearly all process industries, crystallization is used at some stage as a method of production, purification or recovery of solid materials. In recent years, a number of new applications have also come to rely on crystallization processes such as the crystallization of nano and amorphous materials. The articles in this book have been contributed by some of the most respected researchers in this area and cover the frontier areas of research and developments in crystallization processes. Divided into three sections, this book provides the latest research developments in many aspects of crystallization including the crystallization of biological macromolecules and pharmaceutical compounds, the crystallization of nanomaterials and the crystallization of amorphous and glassy materials. This book is of interest to both fundamental research and practicing scientists and will prove invaluable to all chemical engineers and industrial chemists in process industries, as well as crystallization workers and students in industry and academia.

Die Wunden des Staates

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ISBN: 9783205795988 Year: Pages: 586 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_515614 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 231
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-22 11:01:09
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The study’s subject is the assistance for the victims of World War I in Austria. It explains the numerous measures taken in favour of disabled veterans and war widows during the war and in the post-war period and describes the powerful organisations of the invalids. The assistance for war victims expressed very early social policy as supported by the state.

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