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From soil to seed: micronutrient movement into and within the plant

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193516 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-351-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Abstract

In all living organisms, essential micronutrients are cofactors of many ubiquitous proteins that participate in crucial metabolic pathways, but can also be toxic when present in excessive concentrations. In order to achieve correct homeostasis, plants need to control uptake of metals from the environment, their distribution to organs and tissues, and their subcellular compartmentalization. They also have to avoid deleterious accumulation of metals and metalloids such as Cd, As and Al. These multiple steps are controlled by their transport across various membrane structures and their storage in different organelles. Thus, integration of these transport systems required for micronutrient trafficking within the plant is necessary for physiological processes to work efficiently. To cope with the variable availability of micronutrients, plants have evolved an intricate collection of physiological and developmental processes, which are under tight control of short- and long-range signaling pathways. Understanding how plants perceive and deal with different micronutrient concentrations, from regulation to active transport, is important to completing the puzzle of plant metal homeostasis. This is an essential area of research, with several implications for plant biology, agriculture and human nutrition. There is a rising interest in developing plants that efficiently mobilize specific metals and prosper in soils with limited micronutrient availability, as well as those that can selectively accumulate beneficial micronutrients in the edible parts while avoiding contaminants such as Cd and As. However, there is still an important gap in our understanding of how nutrients reach the seeds and the relative contribution of each step in the long pathway from the rhizosphere to the seed. Possible rate-limiting steps for micronutrient accumulation in grains should be the primary targets of biotechnological interventions aiming at biofortification. Over the last 10 years, many micronutrient uptake- and transport-related processes have been identified at the molecular and physiological level. The systematic search for mutants and transcriptional responses has allowed analysis of micronutrient-signaling pathways at the cellular level, whereas physiological approaches have been particularly useful in describing micronutrient-signaling processes at the organ and whole-plant level. Large-scale elemental profiling using high-throughput analytical methodologies and their integration with both bioinformatics and genetic tools, along with metal speciation, have been used to decipher the functions of genes that control micronutrients homeostasis. In this research topic, we will follow the pathway of metal movement from the soil to the seed and describe the suggested roles of identified gene products in an effort to understand how plants acquire micronutrients from the soil, how they partition among different tissues and subcellular organelles, and how they regulate their deficiency and overload responses. We also highlight the current work on heavy metals and metalloids uptake and accumulation, the studies on metal selectivity in transporters and the cross-talk between micro and macronutrients. Thus, we believe a continued dialogue and sharing of ideas amongst plant scientists is critical to a better understanding of metal movement into and within the plant.

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrition of Trees and Forests

ISBN: 9783038421856 9783038421863 Year: Pages: 254
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:52:27
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Frontiers of Sulfur Metabolism in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Response

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199037 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-903-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Growing plants have a constitutive demand for sulfur to synthesize proteins, sulfolipids and other essential sulfur containing molecules for growth and development. The uptake and subsequent distribution of sulfate is regulated in response to demand and environmental cues. The importance of sulfate for plant growth and vigor and hence crop yield and nutritional quality for human and animal diets has been clearly recognized. The acquisition of sulfur by plants, however, has become an increasingly important concern for the agriculture due to the decreasing S-emissions from industrial sources and the consequent limitation of inputs from atmospheric deposition. Molecular characterization involving transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in major crops revealed that sulfate uptake, distribution and assimilation are finely regulated depending on sulfur status and demand, and that these regulatory networks are integrated with cell cycle, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal signaling, uptake and assimilation of other nutrients, etc., to enable plant growth, development, and reproduction even under different biotic and abiotic stresses. This knowledge can be used to underpin approaches to enhance plant growth and nutritional quality of major food crops around the world. Although considerable progress has been made regarding the central role of sulfur metabolism in plant growth, development and stress response, several frontiers need to be explored to reveal the mechanisms of the cross-talk between sulfur metabolism and these processes. In this research topic the knowledge on plant sulfur metabolism is reviewed and updated. Focus is put not only on molecular mechanisms of control of sulfur metabolism but also on its integration with other vital metabolic events. The topic covers 4 major areas of sulfur research: sulfate uptake, assimilation and metabolism, regulation, and role in stress response. We hope that the topic will promote interaction between researchers with different expertise and thus contribute to a more integrative approach to study sulfur metabolism in plants.

Roots - The Hidden Provider

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452446 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-244-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Role of Silicon in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453528 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-352-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Silicon (Si) is gaining increased attention in the farming sector because of its beneficial effects observed in several crop species, particularly under stress conditions. The magnitude of benefits is predominantly observed in plant species that can accumulate Si above a certain threshold. Therefore, deciphering the molecular mechanisms and genetic factors conferring a plant ability to take up silicon is necessary. Along these lines, several efforts have been made to identify the specific genes regulating Si uptake and distribution in plant tissues. This information finds its usefulness in identifying Si-competent species, and could eventually lead to improving this ability in low-accumulating species. The successful exploitation of Si in agriculture depends highly on the understanding of different Si properties including plant-available Si from the soil, transport within tissues, deposition in planta, and Si effect on different metabolic and physiological processes. In addition, a better comprehension of external factors influencing Si uptake and deposition in plant tissue remains important. A plant can take up Si efficiently only in the form of silicic acid and most soils, despite containing high concentrations of Si, are deficient in plant-available Si. Consequently, soil amendment with fertilizers rich in plant-available Si is now viewed as an affordable option to protect plants from the biotic and abiotic stresses and achieve more sustainable cropping management worldwide. Articles compiled in the present research topic touch upon several aspects of Si properties and functionality in plants. The information will be helpful to further our understanding of the role of Si and contribute to exploit the benefits plants derive from it.

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