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How Fear and Stress Shape the Mind

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198719 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-871-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

The experience of fear and stress leaves an indelible trace on the brain. This indelible trace is observed as both changes in behavior and changes in neuronal structure and function. Fear and stress interact on many levels. The experience of stress may lead to the formation of a fearful memory trace of a place or reminder cue, and fearful memory formation is regulated by the extent of concurrent stress. The concurrent experience of fear and stress may amplify fear and slow fear extinction which may lead to pathology. Fear memory formation involves changes in synaptic plasticity while stress and glucocorticoids change neuronal structure. Thus, both neurons and synapses are changed. These changes can be identified, visualised and mapped within focused microcircuits. In this Research Topic we focus on current advances in both the neurobiology and behavioral consequences of fear and stress.

Using Stress-Based Animal Models to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Psychiatric and Somatic Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450848 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-084-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Chronic or repeated stress, particularly psychosocial stress, is an acknowledged risk factor for numerous affective and somatic disorders in modern societies. Thus, there is substantial evidence showing that chronic stress can increase the likelihood of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, as well as cardiovascular diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and pain syndromes, to name but a few, in vulnerable individuals. Although a number of pharmacological agents are available to treat such stress-related disorders, many patients do not respond to them, and those who do often report a number of side effects. Therefore, a major emphasis in modern basic research is to uncover the underlying aetiology of these disorders, and to develop novel efficacious treatment strategies. This has led to a resurgence in developing, and using, appropriate animal models to study a wide variety of stress-related disorders. Thus, the aim of this research topic “Using stress-based animal models to understand the mechanisms underlying psychiatric and somatic disorders” was to bring together novel research articles and comprehensive review articles from prominent stress researchers. In addition to describing the insights such models have provided relating to the aetiology of psychiatric and somatic disorders, these articles also encompass mechanisms that are believed to underlie stress resilience and stress-protection. Finally, given the current prominence on the role of the brain-gut axis in health and disease, the research topic covers the emerging evidence showing how the gut, particularly the microbiota, influences affective behaviour and physiology.

All 3 Types of Glial Cells Are Important for Memory Formation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450251 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-025-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The vertebrate brain contains neurons and 3 classical types of glia cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes and microglia have mainly been studied in gray matter, whereas oligodendrocytes myelinate white matter tracts. Until recently microglial effects were considered mainly during pathological conditions, but is now known that microglia plays important roles also in normal brain function. All these 3 glial cell types and their collaboration with neurons are important for learning. The concept that glia cells are important for cognitive function is not new. A glial-neuronal theory of brain function was proposed by Galambos in 1961. Hyden and Egyhazi demonstrated glial RNA changes in microdissected glia cells during learning in rats in 1963, and astrocytic and oligodendrocytic involvement of K+-mediated effects of learning has been suggested and/or demonstrated from the 1960’s and onwards as recently reviewed by Hertz and Chen (Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 2016). In 1969 van den Berg et al. showed compartmentation of glutamate in brain and thus of production of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, which are essential for learning. That glutamate is synthesized in astrocytes because they in contrast to neurons express the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase was demonstrated 10-15 years later by Yu et al. in cultured astrocytes and Shank et al. in intact brain tissue. However, the present e-book focuses on more recent developments. Most information is available about astrocytic roles in learning. The importance of astrocytes in the tripartite synapse and of microglia in the tetrapartite synapse is illustrated in the front-page figure, which emphasizes the role of gliotransmitters and of Ca2+ transport through gap junctions, coupling astrocytes into a functional syncytium. Astrocytes are important for establishments of brain rhythms, which may differ in different cognitive tasks, and although the exact reason why knock-out of the astrocytic water channel AQP4 impairs memory remains to be established, several possibilities are discussed. The importance of the two astrocyte specific processes glutamate and glutamine formation and glycogenolysis is discussed in considerable detail. Glycogenolysis is important not only for astrocytic processes involved in learning, but also for those in neurons because glycolytically derived lactate has signaling functions in the extracellular space and may be accumulated in minute quantities into very specific and small neuronal structures. Some neurotransmitters stimulating glycogenolysis are also involved in psychiatric disease. Noradrenaline, released from locus coeruleus exerts direct effects on both astrocytes and neurons and in addition promotes secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in brain, and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex, all of which are responsible for stress effects on learning. Lead causes memory impairment by inhibition of glutamine formation due to oxidative stress and reduced effectiveness of the glutathione system. The many adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure on behaviour and learning are caused by a multitude of effects on all three types of glia cells. Traumatic brain injury also exerts multifactorial effects, including microglia/astrocyte-induced secretion of neuroinflammatory molecules and axonal disruption and oligodendrocytic dysfunction. In normal brain oligodendrocytes respond to the depolarization caused by neuronal activity with accelerated conduction velocity and increased compound action potentials which facilitate learning.

Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions

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ISBN: 9783038979920 / 9783038979937 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-993-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

Oral health is general health. If the oral cavity is kept healthy, the whole body is always healthy. Bacteria in the oral cavity do not stay in the oral cavity, but rather they travel throughout the body and can induce various diseases. Periodontal pathogens are involved in tooth loss. The number of remaining teeth decreases with age. People with more residual teeth can bite food well and live longer with lower incidence of dementia. There are many viruses in the oral cavity that also cause various diseases. Bacteria and viruses induce and aggravate inflammation, and therefore should be removed from the oral cavity. In the natural world, there are are many as yet undiscovered antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory substances. These natural substances, as well as chemically modified derivatives, help our oral health and lead us to more fulfilling, high quality lives. This Special Issue, entitled “Biological Efficacy of Natural and Chemically Modified Products against Oral Inflammatory Lesions”, was written by specialists from a diverse variety of fields. It serves to provide readers with up-to-date information on incidence rates in each age group, etiology and treatment of stomatitis, and to investigate the application of such treatments as oral care and cosmetic materials.

Keywords

metabolomics --- oral cell --- benzaldehyde --- eugenol --- inflammation --- cytotoxicity --- stomatitis --- recurrent aphthous stomatitis --- oral lichen planus --- CCN2 --- glucocorticoids --- alkaloids --- anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) --- antiviral --- natural product --- human virus --- inflammatory disease --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- anti-osteoclast activity --- cepharanthin --- herbal medicine --- natural product --- arachidonic acid cascade --- allergic rhinitis --- mice --- quercetin --- thioredoxin --- nasal epithelial cell --- production --- increase --- in vitro --- in vivo --- nutritionally variant streptococci --- antimicrobial susceptibilities --- oral microbiota --- infective endocarditis --- kampo formula --- traditional Japanese herbal medicine --- stomatitis --- mucositis --- Hangeshashinto --- polyphenol --- chromone --- lignin-carbohydrate complex --- alkaline extract --- Kampo medicine --- glucosyltransferase --- angiotensin II blocker --- QSAR analysis --- oral diseases --- dental application --- Chinese herbal remedies --- stomatitis --- periodontitis --- Kampo --- traditional medicine --- Jixueteng --- Juzentaihoto --- technical terms --- gargle --- tongue diagnosis --- mastic --- pathogenic factors --- quantitative structure-activity relationship --- machine learning --- random forest --- natural products --- tumour-specificity --- Kampo medicine --- constituent plant extract --- stomatitis --- oral inflammation --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis --- metabolomics

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