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Nutrition and Chronic Conditions

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ISBN: 9783038976028 / 9783038976035 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-603-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular --- Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:10:24
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The effects of nutrition in chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease continue to generate interest among researchers. This stems from the fact that diet is a modifiable risk factor for these diseases, which manifest either as single entities or in co-morbid states in individuals and populations around the world. In particular, the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is on the rise, especially in developed countries, but also in developing economies, partly due to lifestyle changes, including diet. For example, ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. When combined with stroke, these conditions accounted for 15 million deaths in 2015 and are the world’s greatest killers (WHO, 2017). Furthermore, WHO (2016), reported that there were an estimated 422 million adults who were living with diabetes in 2014. This is significantly higher than the 108 million in 1980, representing a rise in worldwide diabetes prevalence from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 among the adult population.These chronic conditions and their associated complications have significant implications for morbidity and mortality, and incur huge costs to the health services around the world. The composition of the diet, the proportion and types of macronutrients and micronutrients present in the diet are major contributors to these diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions have been well documented although differences remain among researchers with respect to their overall impact. The evaluation of the role of nutrition in chronic conditions draws on its effect on body weight and body composition, glycaemic and insulin excursions, vascular remodeling, and gastro-intestinal dysfunction.Therefore, this Special Issue on “Nutrition and Chronic Conditions” aims to evaluate the effect of nutrition in the development, care, and management of chronic conditions. The primary conditions of interest are diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Qualities of food

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780719068546 Year: DOI: 10.9760/mupoa/9780719068546 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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This book addresses current controversial debates about food quality. What is it that makes people decide that food is of good, or alternatively of dubious, 'quality'? How food is produced, how it is prepared, how it tastes and in what circumstances it is consumed are all dimensions of its quality. Chapters address a number of intriguing questions: how do people make judgements about taste?; how do such judgements come to be shared by groups or people?; what social and organisational processes result in foods being certified as of decent or proper quality?; how has dissatisfaction with the food system been expressed?; what alternatives are thought to be possible? The book shows that there are many different answers to such questions because there are many different attributes of food about which judgements may be made. The complexity and the significance of the evaluations of the foods we eat are analysed from a variety of perspectives, by sociologists, economists, geographers and anthropologists. The first part of the book focuses on theoretical and conceptual issues, the second part considers processes of formal and informal regulation, while the third part examines social and political responses to industrialised food production and mass consumption. Qualities of food will be of interest to researchers and students in all the social science disciplines that are concerned with food, whether marketing, sociology, cultural studies, anthropology, human nutrition or economics.

Keywords

nutrition --- food --- gastronomic

Eating, Drinking: Surviving

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Global Understanding ISSN: 2509-7784 ISBN: 9783319424675 9783319424682 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42468-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 18:01:01
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This publication addresses the global challenges of food and water security in a rapidly changing and complex world. The essays highlight the links between bio-physical and socio-cultural processes, making connections between local and global scales, and focusing on the everyday practices of eating and drinking, essential for human survival. Written by international experts, each contribution is research-based but accessible to the general public.

Outils d’enquête alimentaire par entretien : Élaboration au Sénégal

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ISBN: 9782709923286 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.10574 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-04 12:05:58
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Dans beaucoup de pays d'Afrique sub-saharienne, au Sénégal en particulier, les enquêtes alimentaires quantitatives sont rares tandis que les besoins en information sur la consommation alimentaire sont grands. Alors que les enquêtes par pesée des aliments sont fastidieuses et coûteuses, les enquêtes par entretien présentent l'avantage d'être rapides, à condition toutefois de disposer d'outils permettant de traduire en poids les quantités d'aliments simples ou de plats cuisinés annoncées par les sujets interrogés. On trouvera dans cet ouvrage une méthodologie de mise au point des principaux outils utilisés dans les enquêtes alimentaires par entretien en milieu sub-saharien : mesures ménagères, poids moyen, prix des aliments à l'achat, proportions de déchets, recettes quantitatives, humidité et masse volumique des aliments préparés. L'ouvrage présente les outils développés au Sénégal, qui permettent de quantifier la consommation d'une centaine d'aliments simples et de vingt-cinq plats cuisinés courants en Afrique de l'Ouest. En dehors de son intérêt pour la réalisation d'enquêtes alimentaires, l'ouvrage intéressera les diététiciens, les agronomes, les économistes et les anthropologues en charge d'étudier et d'améliorer l'alimentation des populations de la zone sub-saharienne.

Keywords

alimentation --- nutrition --- Sénégal

Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783038427230 9783038427247 Year: Pages: 164 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:37:25
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Milk is a nutritious food item with various beneficial properties and has a long tradition in nutrition, having been part of human diet for thousands of years.The composition of milk varies among different species, and milk quality is affected by several factors, i.e., season, climate, feeding management, and stage of lactation, as well as heat-treatments and technological processes.Milk is a valuable source of bioactive components and its role and function in human diet has been increasingly investigated by epidemiological and experimental studies. Consumption of milk is influenced by several variables, i.e., sex, age, ethnicity, and other cultural factors, and specific recommendations vary from country to country.This book includes original researches and review papers, and provides an overview of the nutritional composition and profile of the bioactive components of milk, its variation, and its impact on human diet.

Nutrition in Pregnancy: Volume I

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423676 9783038423669 Pages: XX, 342 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:00:32
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

Nutrition in Pregnancy - Volume II

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423690 9783038423683 Year: Pages: XX, 270 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 10:21:23
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Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals. In developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major concern. However, with the increased prevalence of abundant high calorie diets, their impact upon pregnancy outcome is of concern. In addition to the amount of nutrition available and its macronutrient composition within a diet, there is emerging evidence highlighting important roles for the lesser studied micronutrients. Added to this complexity is the distinction between maternal and fetal nutrition and the impact the placenta plays in nutrient metabolism and overall nutrient supply to the fetus. Together, these many variables contribute to placental development and function, fetal growth, and, where placental/fetal nutrition and growth is compromised, through poor maternal diet, and/or diet induced alterations in placental metabolism, the impact is dramatic and can lead to lifelong implications for the offspring. This Special Issue book aims to highlight research in many of these areas.

Post-Exercise Recovery: Fundamental and Interventional Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198559 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-855-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Physiological responses after maximal and submaximal exercise are routinely monitored in a plethora of diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, asthma, neuromuscular disorders), and normal populations (e.g. athletes, youth, elderly), while slower or irregular post-exercise recovery usually indicates poor health and/or low fitness level. Abnormal post-exercise recovery (as assessed via blunted post-exercise heart rate dynamics) helps to predict the presence and severity of coronary artery disease, while differences in recovery outcomes in athletes might discriminate between fit and unfit individuals. Disturbances in post-exercise recovery might be due to acute or persistent changes in: (1) adaptive responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system and vasodilator substances, (2) cellular bioenergetics, and/or (3) muscular plasticity. Preliminary evidence suggests possible role of time-dependent modulation of nitric oxide synthase and adenosine receptors during post-exercise recovery, yet no molecular attributes of post-exercise recovery are revealed so far. Currently several markers of post-exercise recovery are used (e.g. heart rate measures, hormone profiles, biochemical and hematological indices); however none of them meets all criteria to make its use generally accepted as the gold standard. In addition, recent studies suggest that different pharmacological agents and dietary interventions, or manipulative actions (e.g. massage, cold-water immersion, compression garments, athletic training) administered before, during or immediately after exercise could positively affect post-exercise recovery. There is a growing interest to provide more evidence-based data concerning the effectiveness and safety of traditional and novel interventions to affect post-exercise recovery. The goals of this research topic are to critically evaluate the current advances on mechanisms and clinical implications of post-exercise recovery, and to summarize recent experimental data from interventional studies. This knowledge may help to identify the hierarchy of key mechanisms, and recognize methods to monitor and improve post-exercise recovery in both health and disease.

Nutritional influences on human neurocognitive functioning

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193363 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-336-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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‘You are what you eat’. It’s a saying that we’ve all heard time and time again. The notion that good nutrition is essential for adequate growth and sound physical wellbeing is very well established. Further, in recent years, there has been an overwhelming increase in research dedicated to better understanding how nutritional factors influence cognition and behaviour. For example, several studies have suggested that higher foetal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins such as folate promotes neurodevelopment. B vitamins may also play a role in neurocognitive functioning in later life, with some suggestion that lower vitamin B levels are associated with increased risk of dementia (although randomised controlled trials investigating B vitamin supplementation as a cognitive enhancer in the elderly have provided inconclusive evidence as to the benefits of such therapy for dementia). In fact, the nutritional underpinnings of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders of cognitive ageing is becoming a much researched topic. In addition, consumption of several other foods has been found to convey more acute cognitively enhancing effects. For example, ingestion of carbohydrates (e.g. glucose), caffeine, resveratrol and several ‘nutraceutical’ herbal extracts has been associated with short-term improvements in cognitive performance. Beyond specific micronutrients and macronutrients, the current literature seems to support anecdotal evidence that consumption of a balanced breakfast is crucial to various measures of school performance, including attention in the classroom. What is clear from this emerging literature is that the relationship between nutritional status and neurocognitive functioning at various stages of the lifespan is complex. An aim of this Research Topic is to bring together some recent empirical findings, reviews and commentaries of the literature to date and opinion pieces relating to future directions for this burgeoning field.

Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429166 9783038429159 Year: Pages: XII, 296 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 17:31:13
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We are experiencing a worldwide epidemic of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health burden. Approximately seven million people develop diabetes in both developed and developing countries every year, with the most dramatic increases occurring in Type 2 Diabetes. Especially alarming, is the rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in obese children before puberty. In April 2017, a Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes” closed with 19 published papers—eight original studies on humans, five on animals, one brief report and five reviews. The focus of the issue was on nutrition, diet factors, whole foods, broad dietary and lifestyle strategies, dietary patterns, intensive personalized treatments, nutritional prevention programs, and food policies that can be used in the development, treatment, and prevention of DM2.Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes is written for clinical and academic nutritionists, for registered dietitians, health professionals, graduate students, and for everybody with deeper interest in diabetes care. Studies and reviews presented here demonstrate that diabetes research is extensive and vibrant and the prevention, treatment and reversal of diabetes are achievable, economical, powerful, and possible.

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