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Recent Developments in the Field of Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9781789235180 9781789235197 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71346 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Carbon fibres are lightweight, chemically stable materials with high mechanical strength, and have state-of-the-art applications in aerospace, marine, construction and automotive sectors. The demand for carbon fibre?based components is expected to grow dramatically with expanding opportunities for lightweight metals and composites. Although this field has achieved a high level of maturity, nanoscale developments in carbon fibres have seen dramatic improvements in the functions of conventional biomaterials and composites. This book reveals several new developments in the field to enhance characteristics of carbon fibres and their composites, novel applications for tissue engineering, biological scaffoldings and implants, recycling and reuse of end-of-life CFRP and manufacturing waste and other issues of concern in the field of carbon fibres.

Modified Asphalt

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ISBN: 9781789237269 9781789237276 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71157 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Asphalt modification is an important area in the development of new road and pavement materials. There is an urgent demand for road materials that can minimize fracture at low temperatures and increase resistance to deformation at high temperatures. The function of asphalt is to bind aggregate to protect it from water and other harmful agents. In the beginning asphalt was ideal for this purpose, but recently traffic loads have increased and environmental factors have deteriorated more rapidly than before. Asphalt is a byproduct of crude oil in the refining process, and it is considered a complex heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons. Asphalt modification has become an important research area, using several methods and new materials as modifiers.

Cement Based Materials

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ISBN: 9781789841534 9781789841541 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71134 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Cement-based materials have been used by humans nearly since the dawn of civilization. The Egyptians used lime and gypsum cement to bind their aggregate materials, mud and straw, resulting in bricks that are used for building their famous Egyptian pyramids (between 3000 and 2500 BC). Hydrated cement is a cement material bonded together with water and used for building construction; it is characterized by acceptable chemical, physical, thermal, mechanical, and structural stability. It plays a main role in the creation of vessels for storage, roads to travel on, weather-resistant structure for protection, inert hard stabilizer for hazardous wastes, and so on. Due to the composition of these materials and their advantages, it has been practiced in different applications. Cement is an essential component of making concrete, the single most prevalent building material used worldwide for construction, skyscrapers, highways, tunnels, bridges, hydraulic dams, and railway ties. Besides their numerous desired properties, there are some undesirable features. To overcome these disadvantages, several studies were established to prepare, improve, and evaluate innovative cement-based materials. Despite its oldness and deep research, every year several methods and materials evolve and so do cement technology. This book intends to provide a comprehensive overview on recent advances in the evaluation of these materials.

Metamaterials and Metasurfaces

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ISBN: 9781789848427 9781789848434 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73359 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Metamaterials have provided applications in spectral ranges covering radio frequencies and ultraviolet. However, most applications have been extrapolated to the visible or near-infrared after being developed at the GHz level. This is due to technological reasons since fabrication of microwave antennas is not as demanding as THz resonators or plasmonic nanostructures. Accordingly, this book has been divided into three parts. In the first part, fundamentals of metamaterials and metadevices are discussed, while describing recent advances in the field. In the second part, the discussion is extended to the different spectral ranges focusing on the strategies for enabling the reconfigurability of metadevices. Given the increasing interest in THz applications, these can be found in the third part.

Characterizations of Some Composite Materials

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ISBN: 9781789849110 9781789849127 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73357 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Composite materials are materials made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties; when combined, a new material with characteristics different from the individual components is produced, while the individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new composite material often displays many beneficial characteristics; in many cases, composites are stronger, of lower density, or less costly in comparison to established materials. Based on the classification of composites, we are already familiar with the fact that there exists a myriad of different types of these materials. It is a common saying that different types of composites differ in their performance. Yet, composites also have some characteristics in common. The proper material choice for an envisaged application is of outstanding importance and key in the development of a new product. Selecting the most suitable material determines the performance and characterization of the final product whether it will meet the designated function and performance requirements. The present book ""Characterizations of some composite materials"" contains eight selected chapters, starting with a general introductory chapter on composite materials, and covers different aspects in characterizing some composite materials. In this context, the present book is considered an appropriate way to communicate the advances in characterization of some composite materials to the scientific community. Chemists, scientists, and researchers from related areas, and undergraduates involved in materials issues and interested in approaches to improve the quality of life, as well as people from industry could find this book to be an inspiring and effective guide.

Optimum Composite Structures

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ISBN: 9781789850673 9781789850680 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74696 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The subject of optimum composite structures is a rapidly evolving field and intensive research and development have taken place in the last few decades. Therefore, this book aims to provide an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the current status in this field to the research community. The contributing authors combine structural analysis, design and optimization basis of composites with a description of the implemented mathematical approaches. Within this framework, each author has dealt with the individual subject as he/she thought appropriate. Each chapter offers detailed information on the related subject of its research with the main objectives of the works carried out as well as providing a comprehensive list of references that should provide a rich platform of research to the field of optimum composite structures.

Mesoporous Materials - Properties and Applications

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ISBN: 9781838806491 9781838806507 9781838806873 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79068 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The basic theme of this book is to understand the fundamentals and importance of porous functional materials, their properties, and significant applications like solar cells, batteries, photovoltaics, energy conversions, and mesoporous materials. This book covers the fundamentals of mesoporous materials, and various methods of synthesis, properties, and applications in different sectors.

Nanocomposites with Unique Properties and Applications in Medicine and Industry

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ISBN: 9789533073514 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.5772/1549 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:08

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This book contains chapters on nanocomposites for engineering hard materials for high performance aircraft, rocket and automobile use, using laser pulses to form metal coatings on glass and quartz, and also tungsten carbide-cobalt nanoparticles using high voltage discharges. A major section of this book is largely devoted to chapters outlining and applying analytic methods needed for studies of nanocomposites. As such, this book will serve as good resource for such analytic methods.

ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures

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ISBN: 9783038970132 9783038970149 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-014-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-15 09:30:30
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Nowadays, transition metal-oxides can be considered the most investigated materials especially in their nanostructured forms thanks to their intrinsic smart properties and to the positive effects induced by scaling their dimension down to the nanoscale. Among them, ZnO and TiO2 have attracted particular interest mainly because of their multi-functionality applicable in an enormous range of research fields. The present Special Issue – composed by twenty-seven papers, both reviews and research articles - covers the most recent advances in ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures, concerning not only their synthesis and characterization, but also reports of the manner(s) in which their functional and smart properties can be applied in working devices. Applications of such nanostructures can range widely, from biomedical and drug delivery devices to piezoelectric and chemical sensors, and energy harvesting, conversion, and storage devices.

Keywords

ZnO --- TiO2 --- nanostructures --- smart materials

Rietveld Refinement in the Characterization of Crystalline Materials

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ISBN: 9783038975274 / 9783038975281 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-528-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-28 10:16:11
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This Special Issue serves as a crystallographic forum covering various aspects of material science that have in common the use of the powerful Rietveld method in the analysis of the powder XRD patterns of investigated compounds.

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