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Computational Modelling of Multi-scale Solute Dispersion in Porous Media - An Approach Based on Stochastic Calculus

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ISBN: 9789533077260 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.5772/3189 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This research monograph presents a mathematical approach based on stochastic calculus which tackles the ""cutting edge"" in porous media science and engineering - prediction of dispersivity from covariance of hydraulic conductivity (velocity). The problem is of extreme importance for tracer analysis, for enhanced recovery by injection of miscible gases, etc. This book explains a generalised mathematical model and effective numerical methods that may highly impact the stochastic porous media hydrodynamics. The book starts with a general overview of the problem of scale dependence of the dispersion coefficient in porous media. Then a review of pertinent topics of stochastic calculus that would be useful in the modeling in the subsequent chapters is succinctly presented. The development of a generalised stochastic solute transport model for any given velocity covariance without resorting to Fickian assumptions from laboratory scale to field scale is discussed in detail. The mathematical approaches presented here may be useful for many other problems related to chemical dispersion in porous media.

Smoothing, Filtering and Prediction - Estimating The Past, Present and Future

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ISBN: 9789533077529 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.5772/2706 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book describes the classical smoothing, filtering and prediction techniques together with some more recently developed embellishments for improving performance within applications. It aims to present the subject in an accessible way, so that it can serve as a practical guide for undergraduates and newcomers to the field. The material is organised as a ten-lecture course. The foundations are laid in Chapters 1 and 2, which explain minimum-mean-square-error solution construction and asymptotic behaviour. Chapters 3 and 4 introduce continuous-time and discrete-time minimum-variance filtering. Generalisations for missing data, deterministic inputs, correlated noises, direct feedthrough terms, output estimation and equalisation are described. Chapter 5 simplifies the minimum-variance filtering results for steady-state problems. Observability, Riccati equation solution convergence, asymptotic stability and Wiener filter equivalence are discussed. Chapters 6 and 7 cover the subject of continuous-time and discrete-time smoothing. The main fixed-lag, fixed-point and fixed-interval smoother results are derived. It is shown that the minimum-variance fixed-interval smoother attains the best performance. Chapter 8 attends to parameter estimation. As the above-mentioned approaches all rely on knowledge of the underlying model parameters, maximum-likelihood techniques within expectation-maximisation algorithms for joint state and parameter estimation are described. Chapter 9 is concerned with robust techniques that accommodate uncertainties within problem specifications. An extra term within Riccati equations enables designers to trade-off average error and peak error performance. Chapter 10 rounds off the course by applying the afore-mentioned linear techniques to nonlinear estimation problems. It is demonstrated that step-wise linearisations can be used within predictors, filters and smoothers, albeit by forsaking optimal performance guarantees.

Montecarlo Simulation of Two Component Aerosol Processes

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ISBN: 9789535122623 9789535122630 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/60735 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Nanophase materials are single-phase or multiphase polycrystals, with dimensions of the order of 1-100 nm. As grain size decreases down to the nanometer-size range, nanophase metals generally get stronger and harder, while nanophase ceramics show ductility, even superplasticity, at lower temperatures than conventional brittle ceramics. This book describes a novel method for the production of high purity, unagglomerated nano-particulates of tungsten and tungsten titanium alloys by flame synthesis. W-Ti nano-sized alloys have a combination of high strength (800-1000 MPa), high ductility (10-30%), good e1ectrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and excellent machinability. Current applications for W and W-Ti inc1ude radiation shields, lighting components, ignition electrode materials, catalysts in the chemical industry, alloying elements for high speed steels, sputter targets in VLSI chip technology, and sport related parts.

Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences

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ISBN: 9789535126089 9789535126096 9789535141884 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.5772/62109 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book features state-of-the-art contributions in mathematical, experimental and numerical simulations in engineering sciences. The contributions in this book, which comprise twelve chapters, are organized in six sections spanning mechanical, aerospace, electrical, electronic, computer, materials, geotechnical and chemical engineering. Topics include metal micro-forming, compressible reactive flows, radio frequency circuits, barrier infrared detectors, fiber Bragg and long-period fiber gratings, semiconductor modelling, many-core architecture computers, laser processing of materials, alloy phase decomposition, nanofluids, geo-materials and rheo-kinetics. Contributors are from Europe, China, Mexico, Malaysia and Iran. The chapters feature many sophisticated approaches including Monte Carlo simulation, FLUENT and ABAQUS computational modelling, discrete element modelling and partitioned frequency-time methods. The book will be of interest to researchers and also consultants engaged in many areas of engineering simulation.

Uncertainty Quantification and Model Calibration

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ISBN: 9789535132790 9789535132806 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.5772/65579 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Uncertainty quantification may appear daunting for practitioners due to its inherent complexity but can be intriguing and rewarding for anyone with mathematical ambitions and genuine concern for modeling quality. Uncertainty quantification is what remains to be done when too much credibility has been invested in deterministic analyses and unwarranted assumptions. Model calibration describes the inverse operation targeting optimal prediction and refers to inference of best uncertain model estimates from experimental calibration data. The limited applicability of most state-of-the-art approaches to many of the large and complex calculations made today makes uncertainty quantification and model calibration major topics open for debate, with rapidly growing interest from both science and technology, addressing subtle questions such as credible predictions of climate heating.

Heuristics and Hyper-Heuristics - Principles and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535133834 9789535133841 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/66267 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
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In the last few years, the society is witnessing ever-growing levels of complexity in the optimization paradigms lying at the core of different applications and processes. This augmented complexity has motivated the adoption of heuristic methods as a means to balance the Pareto trade-off between computational efficiency and the quality of the produced solutions to the problem at hand. The momentum gained by heuristics in practical applications spans further towards hyper-heuristics, which allow constructing ensembles of simple heuristics to handle efficiently several problems of a single class. In this context, this short book compiles selected applications of heuristics and hyper-heuristics for combinatorial optimization problems, including scheduling and other assorted application scenarios.

Time Series Analysis and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535137429 9789535137436 9789535140429 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68262 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
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Time Series Analysis (TSA) and Applications offers a dense content of current research and development in the field of data science. The book presents time series from a multidisciplinary approach that covers a wide range of sectors ranging from biostatistics to renewable energy forecasting. Contrary to previous literatures on time, serious readers will discover the potential of TSA in areas other than finance or weather forecasting. The choice of the algorithmic transform for different scenarios, which is a key determinant in the application of TSA, can be understood through the diverse domain applications. Readers looking for deep understanding and practicability of TSA will be delighted. Early career researchers too will appreciate the technicalities and refined mathematical complexities surrounding TSA. Our wish is that this book adds to the body of TSA knowledge and opens up avenues for those who are looking forward to applying TSA in their own context.

Simulation and Gaming

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ISBN: 9789535138037 9789535138006 9789535140832 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69391 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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The book ""Simulation and Gaming"" discusses the following topics and research areas: game-based methods of problem solution and data processing, analysis, and information mining; educational games and game features, including game characteristics, story, mechanics, and methodology; development of integrated games tasked with helping students in interpreting, translating, and manipulating the field of kinematics through formal presentations; possibility of research integration through real and practical examples and games as well, in the field of physics; analysis of game engines from various aspects such as modularity, performance, and usability; virtual reality (VR) and interaction mechanisms used for three-dimensional (3D) game development; analysis, development, design, implementation, and evaluation of the simulation model in the field of engineering and metallurgy, according to ADDIE model; concept of computational thinking, with an accent on its inclusion in compulsory education; overview of the current prominence of AI simulation based in the gaming leisure industry, mainly for research purposes in the context of gambling and forecasting of online casino patron's churn behavior; innovative modeling and simulation approach using newly proposed advanced game-based mathematical framework, unified game-based acquisition framework, and a set of war-gaming engines to address the challenges for acquisition of future space systems; modification of simulation of a complex system and a physics model through programming, achieved with a block-based programming language.

Finite Element Method - Simulation, Numerical Analysis and Solution Techniques

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ISBN: 9789535138495 9789535138501 9789535140795 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69137 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The book entitled Finite Element Method: Simulation, Numerical Analysis, and Solution Techniques aims to present results of the applicative research performed using FEM in various engineering fields by researchers affiliated to well-known universities. The book has a profound interdisciplinary character and is mainly addressed to researchers, PhD students, graduate and undergraduate students, teachers, engineers, as well as all other readers interested in the engineering applications of FEM. I am confident that readers will find information and challenging topics of high academic and scientific level, which will encourage them to enhance their knowledge in this engineering domain having a continuous expansion. The applications presented in this book cover a broad spectrum of finite element applications starting from mechanical, electrical, or energy production and finishing with the successful simulation of severe meteorological phenomena.

Chaos Theory

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ISBN: 9789535139454 9789535139461 9789535140658 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68716 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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With a good background in nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory, and applications, the author of this leading book gives a systematic treatment of the basic principle of nonlinear dynamics in different fields. The contributions from leading international scientists active in the field provide a comprehensive overview of our current level of background on chaos theory and applications in different sciences. In addition, they show overlap with the traditional field of control theory in scientific community.

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