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Socioeconomics of Agriculture

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Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Economics ISSN: 2191-5504 ISBN: 9783319741406 9783319741413 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74141-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Agroscope
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 14:17:19
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This open access book applies for the first time emerging concepts of socioeconomics to analyse an economic sector, namely agriculture. It considers the rational choices of all actors in the system (just as agricultural economists do) and their cultural preferences and constraints (just as rural sociologists do). Socioeconomic concepts are subsequently used to structure agricultural issues with regard to the three governance mechanisms (hierarchy, markets, and cooperation), and different agricultural systems are presented and compared. The book will be of interest to social scientists with various backgrounds, and seeks to break down the barriers of single-disciplinary thinking.

Heterogeneity, High Performance Computing, Self-Organization and the Cloud

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Book Series: Palgrave Studies in Digital Business & Enabling Technologies ISBN: 9783319760377 9783319760384 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76038-4 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: European Commission; Irish Centre for Cloud Computing and Commerce
Subject: Business and Management --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 18:56:40
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This open access book addresses the most recent developments in cloud computing such as HPC in the Cloud, heterogeneous cloud, self-organising and self-management, and discusses the business implications of cloud computing adoption. Establishing the need for a new architecture for cloud computing, it discusses a novel cloud management and delivery architecture based on the principles of self-organisation and self-management. This focus shifts the deployment and optimisation effort from the consumer to the software stack running on the cloud infrastructure. It also outlines validation challenges and introduces a novel generalised extensible simulation framework to illustrate the effectiveness, performance and scalability of self-organising and self-managing delivery models on hyperscale cloud infrastructures. It concludes with a number of potential use cases for self-organising, self-managing clouds and the impact on those businesses.

Current Strategies for the Biochemical Diagnosis and Monitoring of Mitochondrial Disease

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ISBN: 9783038972402 9783038972419 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-241-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-16 10:00:26
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Mitochondrial disease constitutes a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from a defect in mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme activity. In view of the dual regulation of the MRC, exercised by both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome, mutations in either mitochondrial or nuclear DNA can result in a MRC deficiency. Whilst a single organ can be affected, MRC disorders often result in a multi-organ system presentation with prominent neurological and myopathic features. The diagnosis of MRC disorders can be complex, and requires a coordinated interplay of a number of disciplines. However, biochemical determination of metabolites in blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine are generally considered to be first-line investigations for the diagnosis of these disorders, although they lack sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on the overall utility of monitoring other biochemical parameters, which may be of diagnostic value. For example, although oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of mitochondrial disorders, few centers monitor this as part of their diagnostic repertoire. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue was to highlight potential biomarkers of mitochondrial disease and to discuss the appropriateness of biochemical markers to monitor disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

Taktisches Supply Chain Planning

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Book Series: Bochumer Beitraege zur Unternehmensfuehrung ISBN: 9783631396766 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3726/b14026 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:19
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Planungsansätze an einem Beispiel illustriert und bewertet. Das taktische Supply Chain Planning bestimmt auf Basis einer prognostizierten Nachfrage die jeweiligen Produktmengen übergreifend von den Lieferanten über die Produktionsstandorte und Distributionslager bis hin zu den Kunden mit einem Planungshorizont von etwa einem Jahr. Da bei derartigen Planungsproblemen oftmals zahlreiche Standorte und Transportverbindungen zwischen den Standorten sowie vielfältige Produktarten zu berücksichtigen sind, ist eine Planungsunterstützung unter Einsatz quantitativer Methoden geboten.
In dieser Arbeit werden unterschiedliche Ansätze zur Unterstützung des taktischen Supply Chain Planning diskutiert sowie ein stochastischer Ansatz zur Berücksichtigung einer mit Risiko behafteten Nachfrage entwickelt. Darüber hinaus werden die unterschiedlichen Ausgestaltungsmöglichkeiten der Planungsansätze an einem Beispiel illustriert und bewertet.

Plant Mitochondria

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ISBN: 9783038975502 / 9783038975519 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-551-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-19 09:53:15
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The primary function of mitochondria is respiration, where the catabolism of substrates is coupled to ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. In plants, mitochondrial composition is relatively complex and flexible and has specific pathways to support photosynthetic processes in illuminated leaves. Plant mitochondria also play important roles in a variety of cellular processes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur metabolism. Research on plant mitochondria has rapidly developed in the last few decades with the availability of the genome sequences for a wide range of model and crop plants. Recent prominent themes in plant mitochondrial research include linking mitochondrial composition to environmental stress responses, and how this oxidative stress impacts on the plant mitochondrial function. Similarly, interest in the signaling capacity of mitochondria, the role of reactive oxygen species, and retrograde and anterograde signaling has revealed the transcriptional changes of stress responsive genes as a framework to define specific signals emanating to and from the mitochondrion. There has also been considerable interest in the unique RNA metabolic processes in plant mitochondria, including RNA transcription, RNA editing, the splicing of group I and group II introns, and RNA degradation and translation. Despite their identification more than 100 years ago, plant mitochondria remain a significant area of research in the plant sciences. This Special Issue, “Plant Mitochondria”, will cover a selection of recent research topics and timely review articles in the field of plant mitochondrial research.

Functional elements and engineering template-based product development process. Application for the support of stamping tool design

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Book Series: Reihe Informationsmanagement im Engineering Karlsruhe / Hrsg.: Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institut für Informationsmanagement im Ingenieurwesen (IMI) ISSN: 18605990 ISBN: 3866440332 Year: Volume: 2006,1 Pages: XV, 201 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000004821 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This thesis proposes a product design solution based on functional elements and particularly on one of its sub-categories called engineering templates. The approach supports the development process to reach the common goals of time reduction and quality enhancement by shortening the product development times, enabling continuous information flows and capitalizing on engineering knowledge. An example based on the template of a stamping tool illustrates the influence of templates on process chain shaping and evidences their utility for the concurrent engineering concept.

Multi-Criteria Methods and Techniques Applied to Supply Chain Management

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ISBN: 9781789233346 9781789233353 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71296 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book intends to be a complimentary reference for graduate and undergraduate courses of Business and Engineering. Readers not familiar with Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and supply chain management (SCM) may have a first glance, reading isolate chapters. Moreover, the sequential order from Chapters 1 to 8 may be more instructive. Readers with expertise on MCDM or SCM will find interesting applications or proposals. The book also presents a systematic literature review, which confirms the leadership of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA).

Nutrition and Liver Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429234 9783038429241 Year: Pages: X, 148 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:47:05
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Malnutrition in people with liver disease is a challenging issue due to its multifactorial nature, which includes hypermetabolism, increased energy needs, malabsorption, and anorexia. Despite advances in both assessment and management, correct nutritional support is still an often-unanswered need in the care of these patients to avoid poor outcomes. One of the central issues remains how to improve muscolar mass of sarcopenic chronically malnourished individuals with end stage liver diseases and cirrhosis, as only a correct nutritional assessment and subsequent nutritional handling may enhance quality of life and disease outcome. Nutritional management is mandatory in certain inherited metabolic/genetic defects: in these patients specific dietary restrictions/supplementations represent a challenge to guarantee optimal growth and liver health.A nutraceutical approach dealing with hepatoprotective effects of specific nutrients, has been proposed for several chronic liver disease, mainly in obesity related liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Finally, other challenges are represented by tailored nutritional intervention in improving gut–liver axis dysfunction also in parenteral nutrition/intestinal failure associated liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease.The purpose of this Special Issue, “Nutrition and Liver Disease”, is to provide novel information and perspectives in the field of nutrition in liver disease and its management.

Challenging the Chain - Governing the Automated Exchange and Processing of Business Information

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ISBN: 9781614994961 9781614994978 Year: Pages: 444 DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-497-8-i Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-03 12:14:49
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What is digital business reporting? Why do we need it? And how can we improve it? This book aims to address these questions by illustrating the rise of system-to-system information exchange and the opportunities for improving transparency and accountability. Governments around the world are looking for ways to strengthen transparency and accountability without introducing more red tape, which is a source of growing frustration and costs for businesses. In 2004, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Justice in the Netherlands started to investigate the potential of XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) as a uniform data standard for business-to-government information exchange. In 2006, there was a comprehensive architecture for Standard Business Reporting (SBR), including the requirements for the information infrastructure. One year later the first reports in XBRL were successfully delivered to the Tax and Customs Administration and the Chamber of Commerce via a secure infrastructure. Today, millions of business reports are being exchanged using SBR. As a solution, SBR empowers organisations to present a cohesive explanation of their business operations and helps them engage with internal and external stakeholders, including regulators, shareholders and creditors.Challenging the chain describes the journey of SBR from challenge to solution. Specialists in the field – flanked by academics – provide detailed insights on the challenges actors faced and the solutions they achieved. In its versatility, this book exemplifies the necessary paradigm shifts when it comes to such large-scale public-private transformations. Policy makers, managers, IT specialists and architects looking to engage in such transformations will find guidance in this book.

Insights into Microbe-Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems: Strategies to be Competitive

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450527 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-052-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

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