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Science in Court Society: Giovan Battista Benedetti’s “Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber” (Turin, 1585)

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Book Series: Sources 11: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561164 Year: Pages: 642 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-03 09:43:11
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Giovanni Battista Benedetti is counted as one of the most brilliant mathematical and philosophical minds of the late Italian Renaissance. However, the theoretical and historical relevance of his work is still obscure in many respects. This is due to several factors, principal among which is the relative rarity of his major work, Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber (Book including various mathematical and physical speculations), 1585.This work was a major contribution to Renaissance science, especially due to its insights on mechanics, the mathematical approach to natural investigation, and the connection of celestial and terrestrial dynamics in a post-Copernican perspective. The first edition was an elegant folio, which includes heterogeneous writings not only on mathematics and physics but also on technical and philosophical issues. Benedetti presented these as short treatises or letters addressed to gentlemen, courtiers, scholars, engineers, and practitioners of different arts. The Diversae speculationes appeared in a series of prestigious volumes aimed at celebrating the magnificence of the court and the capital. It aimed to make the quality of the court mathematician’s research and skills publicly appreciable. It also bore witness to the intensity of the cultural debates going on in Turin or connecting it with other centers, especially Venice.This open access edition makes the Benedetti’s work accessible to a large scholarly readership. In the extensive introduction, his achievement is presented in its rich complexity. Benedetti is emblematic of his time and of the non-linearity of the historical process of Renaissance science with its multicentric institutions and scientific networks. The apparent fragmentary nature of his work hides a fundamental unity of the conception and the method, both of which rest on geometry. Benedetti regarded mechanics as a model, but he enlarged his perspective to include the most varied fields of investigation and concretely to demonstrate the fruitfulness of his approach to universal knowledge, astronomy, physics, meteorology, and even to ethics.Edition Open Sources (EOS) pioneers a new paradigm in the publishing of historical sources. Academic editions of primary sources in the history of science are published in online, digital, and print formats that present facsimiles, transcriptions, and often translations of original works with an introduction to the author, the text, and the context in which it was written. The sources are historical books, manuscripts, documents, or other archival materials that are otherwise difficult to access. EOS is a cooperation between the University of Oklahoma Libraries, the Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.

Quantum Gravity in the First Half of the Twentieth Century: A Sourcebook

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Book Series: Sources 10: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561317 Year: Pages: 511 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-03 09:57:08
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This volume collects the earliest contributions to what is now known as quantum gravity research: the attempt to bring together quantum theory and the general theory of relativity. Covering the period from 1916-1950, it shows the beginnings of an unsolved problem that still remains as such today. The original sources are interspersed with historical essays, which together provide the first scholarly historical overview of quantum gravity in the first half of the twentieth Century. The combination of historical analysis and original sources make this a volume of interest to historians, philosophers, and physicists alike. - Edition Open Sources (EOS) pioneers a new paradigm in publishing, devoted to open access and high-quality peer review. This collaborative scholarly endeavor publishes academic editions of primary sources in the history of science in online, digital, and print formats. EOS publications present new editions of original sources with facsimile reproductions, in part also with translations, and with an introduction to the authors and the context in which they worked. The sources are typically historical books, manuscripts, documents or other material that is otherwise difficult to access. EOS a collaboration be-tween the University of Oklahoma Libraries, the Department for the History of Science of the University of Oklahoma and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin.

„Dem Anwenden muss das Erkennen vorausgehen“: Auf dem Weg zu einer Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-/Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

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Book Series: Proceedings 6: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561010 Year: Pages: 381 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Multidisciplinary
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:17:04
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Anknüpfend an die Tradition der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft ist die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft heute eine einzigartige Institution der Grundlagenforschung, die weltweit Attraktivität und Vorbildwirkung besitzt. Auf welchen Erfahrungen und Prinzipien beruht diese Wirkung? Wie fanden die Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und dann die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ihre Themen, wo wurden Durchbrüche erreicht und welche strukturellen Voraussetzungen haben erreichte Erfolge? Wie verhält sich die Dynamik der Wissenschaftsentwicklung zur gesellschaftlichen Dynamik? Wie hat sich ihr Selbstverständnis im Laufe der über hundert Jahre ihres Bestehens gewandelt? Wie finanziert sie sich? Schließen das „Harnack-Prinzip“ als institutionelles Markenzeichen und ein „Großbetrieb der Wissenschaft“ einander aus? Wie haben Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und Max-Planck-Gesellschaft die großen politischen Umbrüche des 20. Jahrhunderts erlebt und überlebt? Mit einer Politik der Entpolitisie-rung? Das sind Überlegungen und Fragen, denen die zwölf Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Sammelbands in ihren Beiträgen nachgehen. Sie sind hervorgegangen aus einem Kolloquium, das 2010/11 anlässlich des 100-jährigen Jubiläums der Gesellschaft im Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte in Berlin stattfand.

The Globalization of Knowledge in the Iberian Colonial World

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Book Series: Proceedings 10: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561072 Year: Pages: 322 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 10:37:43
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This volume investigates processes of knowledge formation in the Iberian colonies by attempting to understand the Spanish and Portuguese contribution to the European scientific tradition, and by tracing the origins and history of this knowledge to find out how it was gained. The studies in this volume reconsider our understanding of what scientific knowledge is and introduce a variety of scientific cultures of European and non-European origin. They examine the mixing processes of scientific cultures and the role these cultures played in the colonial situation at the intersection of non-human processes and human action. The volume brings together contributions in the history of botany, art, materia medica, translation in the religious sphere of colonial missions as well as mining as a scientific, juridical and industrial endeavor.

Herausforderung Energie: Ausgewählte Vorträge der 126. Versammlung der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte e.V.

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Book Series: Proceedings 1: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844205015 Year: Pages: 217 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 10:52:46
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Die Atomdiskussion des Jahres 2011 berührt vielschichtige Aspekte der Energieversorgung. Das Buch bietet dazu aus der Sicht unterschiedlicher Fachdisziplinen aktuell Informationen und Hintergründe in allgemein verständlicher Form. Zunächst wird in einer Einführung ein Gerüst der Energiediskussion aus der Sicht eines Naturwissenschaftlers beschrieben. Es folgen Kapitel von Spezialisten zu den aktuellen Themen „smart grid“, Erdwärme, Struktur der Mobilität, und Strom aus der Wüste. Ergänzt wird das Themenspektrum durch Beiträge über die sichere Lagerung von radioaktiven Abfällen und von Kohlendioxid. Ein weiterer Beitrag zeigt die längerfristigen Möglichkeiten der Energiespeicherung mit chemischen Methoden auf. Die Dokumentation eines Streitgespräches zwischen Vertretern von Natur- und Geisteswissenschaften zum Begriff „Energie“ rundet das Themenspektrum ab. Das Buch enthält vielfältige Abbildungen und Schaubilder und stellt den Argumenten nachvollziehbare Fakten bei. Die Beiträge stammen von ausgewiesenen Experten und sind Auszüge aus der Dokumentation der Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte 2010 in Dresden. Die vollständige Form wird im Herbst 2011 im Georg Thieme Verlag erscheinen.

Frühe Mikroskopie: Beobachtung als Forschungspraxis

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Book Series: Studies 9: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561140 Year: Pages: 171 Language: Deutsch
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 10:11:40
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Mit dem Mikroskop wurde in den 1620er Jahren ein neues Instrument in die Naturforschung eingeführt, dessen Möglichkeiten man zunächst geradezu euphorisch begrüßte, gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts dann jedoch mit zunehmendem Zweifel bedachte. Beobachten mit dem Mikroskop entwickelte sich innerhalb dieser Jahre zu einer hoch spezialisierten Form der Naturforschung: Die Beobachtungen lösten sich zunehmend von den Fragestellungen traditioneller Kontexte von Wissenschaft wie Naturphilosophie, Naturgeschichte und Medizin. Die Untersuchungsobjekte wurden zunächst über Vergleiche beschrieben, dann aber in ein dichter werdendes Netz aus Analogien eingebunden. Ferner wurden beständig neue Techniken entwickelt oder an die Gegebenheiten angepasst. Die Untersuchungen entwickelten hinsichtlich dieser Aspekte einerseits eine produktive Eigendynamik, andererseits hatten die zunehmend individuellen Ziele und Vorgehensweisen der Akteure mit zur Folge, dass die Überprüfung der Beobachtungen oder eine Kooperation kaum noch möglich waren. - Die Bände der Serie Studies sind zentralen Themen der Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens gewidmet. Perspektiven aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen werden zusammengebracht, und auf Quellen gestützte empirische Forschung wird mit theoretisch ausgerichteten Ansätzen verknüpft. Die einzelnen Bände behandeln typischerweise neue, integrative Ansätze interdisziplinärer Forschergruppen. Sie berühren so unterschiedliche Themen wie die Globalisierung des Wissens oder die Entwicklung des räumlichen Denkens.

Guidobaldo del Monte’s Mechanicorum liber

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Book Series: Sources 1: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319629 Year: Pages: 328 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 13:44:37
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The book presents Guidobaldo del Monte's first book from 1577, the Mechanicorum liber, which is reprinted here in a facsimile edition. The book is a comprehensive treatise on mechanics dealing with the five simple machines, the lever, the pulley, the wheel on an axle, the wedge and the screw. Their properties were in turn derived from the workings of the balance and the lever. The idea that every mechanism can be reduced to these five simple machines goes back to Heron of Alexandria and has been transmitted to the early modern period by Pappus, while the foundational role of balance and lever goes back to the Problemata mechanica ascribed to Aristotle.

Bernardino Baldi’s In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes

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Book Series: Sources 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319612 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:24:51
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"In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes" written by Bernardino Baldi is reprinted with an introduction and commentary as the third volume of the series "Sources of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge." The volume is also freely available in electronic form as an open-access publication on the Internet at www.edition-open-access.de.The "Exercitationes" were first published in 1621, four years after the death of the author. The work belongs to the long tradition of studies on the pseudo-Aristotelian "Mechanical Problems" developed during the Renaissance but, unlike most other works written during the sixteenth century, it takes a critical position against the theoretical approach of the pseudo-Aristotelian text. The "Exercitationes" display a systematic application of Archimedean principles to the explanation of the questions discussed in "Mechanical Problems" illustrating the patchwork character of preclassical mechanics. Moreover, Baldi's work presents lengthy digressions that considerably widen the boundaries of mechanics.

Bernardino Baldi "In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes"

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Book Series: Sources 4 (Italian version of Sources 3): Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319605 Year: Pages: 283 Language: Italian
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:33:03
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"In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes", scritte da Bernardino Baldi, vengono ristampate – provviste d'introduzione e commento – come quarto volume della collana "Sources" della "Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge", la versione Italiana di "Sources 3". Il volume è disponibile in internet senza limitazioni d'accesso anche come pubblicazione elettronica "open-access" all'indirizzo www.edition-open-access.de.Il testo venne pubblicato nel 1621, quattro anni dopo la morte dell’autore. Questo libro appartiene alla lunga tradizione rinascimentale concernente lo studio dei "Problemi Meccanici" pseudo-aristotelici. A differenza della maggior parte delle altre opere scritte durante il XVI secolo, tuttavia, il testo di Baldi esprime una posizione critica nei confronti dell’approccio teorico presente nelle meccaniche pseudo-aristoteliche. Il testo delle "Exercitationes" mostra una sistematica applicazione dei principi archimedei alla spiegazione delle questioni discusse nei "Problemi Meccanici" e, dunque, illustra chiaramente la struttura a forma di patchwork della meccanica preclassica. Il testo, inoltre, presenta lunghe digressioni che ampliano considerevolmente i confini della meccanica.The "Exercitationes" were first published in 1621, four years after the death of the author. The work belongs to the long tradition of studies on the pseudo-Aristotelian "Mechanical Problems" developed during the Renaissance but, unlike most other works written during the sixteenth century, it takes a critical position against the theoretical approach of the pseudo-Aristotelian text. The "Exercitationes" display a systematic application of Archimedean principles to the explanation of the questions discussed in "Mechanical Problems" illustrating the patchwork character of preclassical mechanics. Moreover, Baldi's work presents lengthy digressions that considerably widen the boundaries of mechanics.

Catalysis for the Conversion of Biomass and Its Derivatives

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Book Series: Proceedings 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242829 Year: Pages: 474 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:52:33
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Biomass will play an important role in the future for the replacement of fossil sources for fuels and chemicals. Catalytic processes are required for the efficient conversion of biomass. The development of such processes and the understanding of the catalytic reactions of biomass molecules has recently attracted considerable and increasing attention. In this book, thirteen experts in different fields deliver their views on the state-of-the-art and future development of the use of biomass as a sustainable feedstock for the chemical industry. The book focuses on chemical aspects, such as catalyst development product analysis or reaction engineering, but also seeks a wider perspective and convers related issues like bioeconomics and plant growth.This book is aimed at students and scientists in the interdisciplinary field of catalysis for an introduction to the emerging field of biomass conversion and an overview on recent developments and challenges. The papers are based on lectures presented by the authors at a summer school organized by the Fritz-Haber-Institut and held in August 2010 at Kloster Seeon in Germany in the framework of the National Science Foundation-funded program Partnership in International Research and Education: Molecular Engineering for the Conversion of Biomass Derived Reactants to Fuels, Chemicals, and Materials.

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