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Towards translating research to clinical practice: Novel Strategies for Discovery and Validation of Biomarkers for Brain Injury

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193912 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-391-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability and one of the greatest unmet needs in medicine and public health. TBI not only has devastating effects on patients and their relatives but results in huge direct and indirect costs to society. Although guidelines for the management of patients have been developed and more than 200 clinical trials have been conducted, they have resulted in few improvements in clinical outcomes and no effective therapies approved for TBI. It is now apparent that the heterogeneity of clinical TBI is underlain by molecular phenotypes more complex and interactive than initially conceived and current approaches to the characterization, management and outcome prediction of TBI are antiquated, unidimensional and inadequate to capture the interindividual pathophysiological heterogeneity. Recent advances in proteomics and biomarker development provide unparalleled opportunities for unraveling substantial injury-specific and patient-specific variability and refining disease characterization. The identification of novel, sensitive, objective tools, referred to as biomarkers, can revolutionize pathophysiological insights, enable targeted therapies and personalized approaches to clinical management. In this Research Topic, we present novel approaches that provide an infrastructure for discovery and validation of new biomarkers of acute brain injury. These techniques include refined mass spectrometry technology and high throughput immunoblot techniques. Output from these approaches can identify potential candidate biomarkers employing systems biology and data mining methods. In this Research Topic, we present novel approaches that provide an infrastructure for discovery and validation of new biomarkers of acute brain injury. These techniques include refined mass spectrometry technology and high throughput immunoblot techniques. Output from these approaches can identify potential candidate biomarkers employing systems biology and data mining methods. Finally, suggestions are provided for the way forward, with an emphasis on need for a multidimensional approach that integrate a panel of pathobiologically diverse biomarkers with clinical variables and imaging-based assessments to improve diagnosis and classification of TBI and to develop best clinical practice guidelines.

Mental Practice - Clinical and Experimental Research in Imagery and Action Observation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198399 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-839-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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There is now strong evidence demonstrating that the brain simulates action and other functions. Such action simulation can be evoked through conscious mental rehearsal of movement or imagery, but also through passive action observation watching movements in others. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement, or mental practice, can produce improvements normally attributed to practising actual movements. It is currently assumed that such improvements are due to neural activation associated with action simulation. However the neuroscience of mental practice efficacy is still poorly understood. The aim of this research topic is to clarify the underlying mechanisms of mental practice, bringing evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental neuropsychology, sport and movement science, and clinical neurology. It also attempts to address confusion regarding the concepts of imagery and observation, which has hampered the progression of mental practice research both scientifically and applied. As well as reviews, theoretical, and position articles, this research topic includes original neuroimaging, experimental, and patient research addressing, among others, the following issues. Neuroimaging studies provide strong evidence for action simulation, but the link to behavioural change and functional outcome is weak. What is the evidence that mental practice efficacy is driven by neuroplasticity processes evoked by action simulation? This research topic includes contributions on neural correlates and behaviour with regards to imagery and action observation. Much of the mental practice efficacy evidence comes from longstanding research within sport science. However, what does mental practice entail in these contexts, and to what extent is it compatible with the cognitive neuroscience perspective of action simulation? This research topic will include contributions that consider both evidence and concepts with regards to imagery and action observation, in an attempt to build an interdisciplinary consensus on the nature and application of mental practice. Mental practice is perceived as a promising motor rehabilitation technique, but critically there is lack of clarity or consensus on what mental practice treatment should entail. It is also not clear what are the most appropriate outcomes to measure imagery ability and cognitive or behavioural change following mental practice. A further important issue that needs consideration as part of this research topic is dosage, as it is currently unclear how much mental practice is appropriate and whether this depends on patient variables such as age, cognitive functioning, motor function, or pathophysiology.

Interoception, Contemplative Practice, and Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450947 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-094-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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There is an emergent movement of scientists and scholars working on somatic awareness, interoception and embodiment. This work cuts across studies of neurophysiology, somatic anthropology, contemplative practice, and mind-body medicine. Key questions include: How is body awareness cultivated? What role does interoception play for emotion and cognition in healthy adults and children as well as in different psychopathologies? What are the neurophysiological effects of this cultivation in practices such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation, Tai Chi and other embodied contemplative practices? What categories from other traditions might be useful as we explore embodiment? Does the cultivation of body awareness within contemplative practice offer a tool for coping with suffering from conditions, such as pain, addiction, and dysregulated emotion? This emergent field of research into somatic awareness and associated interoceptive processes, however, faces many obstacles. The principle obstacle lies in our 400-year Cartesian tradition that views sensory perception as epiphenomenal to cognition. The segregation of perception and cognition has enabled a broad program of cognitive science research, but may have also prevented researchers from developing paradigms for understanding how interoceptive awareness of sensations from inside the body influences cognition. The cognitive representation of interoceptive signals may play an active role in facilitating therapeutic transformation, e.g. by altering context in which cognitive appraisals of well-being occur. This topic has ramifications into disparate research fields: What is the role of interoceptive awareness in conscious presence? How do we distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive somatic awareness? How do we best measure somatic awareness? What are the consequences of dysregulated somatic/interoceptive awareness on cognition, emotion, and behavior? The complexity of these questions calls for the creative integration of perspectives and findings from related but often disparate research areas including clinical research, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, anthropology, religious/contemplative studies and philosophy.

1918-2018: 100 Years of Theater Research in Iași. International Conference of Doctoral School for Theater and Performing Arts and the Research Center of The Faculty of Theater at the George Enescu National University of Arts

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110653823 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.2478/9783110653823 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Performing Arts
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 15:10:51

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The Doctoral School for Theatre and Performing Arts and the Research Centre of The Faculty of Theatre at the George Enescu National University of Arts in Iaşi, having the mission of promoting the contribution of personalities in the area of theatre research and creating contexts for sharing their expertise with the doctoral students and young graduates, have proposed holding annual academic meetings. Starting with 2015, these meetings were at first organized as National Symposiums, and, since 2018, they are held as International Conferences. Our purpose is that of rekindling the dialogue between theoreticians and practitioners in our country, at European level and not only.Each year, the participants’ contributions were gathered in the pages of consistent volumes that have been indexed on international databases, so that their ideas and information can go further than the context of these meetings. Aims and Scope: - promoting the results of theatre research at national and international level- promoting young researchers- passing the dialogue between theatre theoreticians and practitioners to the wide audience- the continuous discovery of new ways to innovate stage practice, and the revitalization of theoretical resources- creating teams of theatre researchers, professors and doctoral students, theoreticians and theatre practitioners- following the transdisciplinary directions between theatre and connected areas: literature, film, music, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, etc.

Christina McPhee: A Commonplace Book

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ISBN: 9781947447080 9781947447097 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0186.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:32
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Christina McPhee’s ‘commonplace book’ draws from a palimpsest of handwritten notes, lists, quotations, bibliographic fragments, and sketches, from an artist whose voracious reading practice is a direct feed into her life and art — all set to a visual and textual design-as-score, as prominent writers on painting, media arts, performance, video installation and poetics engage with her ‘open-work’ practice. Christina McPhee’s images move from within a matrix of abstraction, shadowing figures and contingent effects. The tactics of living are in subterfuge, like the dazzle ships of camouflage in war. This ‘commonplace book’ develops a view of recent work in collaged paintings, drawings, photomontage and video installation, around themes of environmental transformation and ‘post-natural’ community.

Archaeologies of Island Melanesia

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Book Series: Terra Australis ISBN: 9781760463021 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.22459/TA51.2019 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Archaeology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-12 11:21:03
License: ANU Press

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Island Melanesia is a remarkable region in many respects, from its great ecological and linguistic diversity, to the complex histories of settlement and interaction spanning from the Pleistocene to the present. Archaeological research in Island Melanesia is currently going through a vibrant phase of exciting new discoveries and challenging debates about questions that apply far beyond the region. This volume draws together a variety of current perspectives in regional archaeology for Island Melanesia, focusing on Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea. It features both high-level theoretical approaches and rigorous data-driven case studies covering recent research in landscape archaeology, exchange and material culture, and cultural practices.&#xD;

Public Management as a Design-Oriented Professional Discipline

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ISBN: 9781788119092 9781788119108 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.4337/9781788119108 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-08 15:05:51
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While public management has become widely spoken of, its identity and character is not well-defined. Such disparity is an underlying problem in developing public management within academia, and in the eyes of practitioners. In this book, Michael Barzelay tackles the challenge of making public management into a true professional discipline. Barzelay argues that public management needs to integrate contrasting conceptions of professional practice. By pressing forward an expansive idea of design in public management, Barzelay formulates a fresh vision of public management in practice and outlines its implications for research, curriculum development and disciplinary identity.

Research in the Archival Multiverse

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Book Series: Social Informatics ISBN: 9781876924676 9781925377699 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_628143 Language: English
Publisher: Monash University Publishing Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100290
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 11:01:31
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Over the past 15 years, the field of archival studies around the world has experienced unprecedented growth within the academy and within the profession, and archival studies graduate education programs today have among the highest enrolments in any information field. During the same period, there has also been unparalleled expansion and innovation in the diversity of methods and theories being applied in archival scholarship. Global in scope, Research in the Archival Multiverse compiles critical and reflective essays across a wide range of emerging research areas and interests in archival studies; it aims to provide current and future archival academics with a text addressing possible methods and theoretical frameworks that have been and might be used in archival scholarship and research.

Das Ich und sein Gehirn - Die Herausforderung der neurobiologischen Forschung für das (Straf-)Recht

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ISBN: 9783941875012 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Neurology --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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In recent years, the debate about the free will has gained intensity. The phase of the heated debate has become a more pertinent and interdisciplinary. But still there are misunderstandings, misconceptions or ambiguities, which are sometimes accompanied by an attitude of denial discourse. This volume helps to highlight the self-perceptions and views of the concerned disciplines: Philosophy and Neuroscience, criminal science and criminal law practice, and not least the Forensic Psychiatry. The book does not claim to present definitive answers but provides clarifications that allow the interested reader to form an reflected opinion. The contributions have come from the first workshop of the Institute of Criminal Sciences at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen in 2007.

Kaiser Sigismund

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ISBN: 9783205787556 Year: Pages: 594 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437192 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4308
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:28
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The present conference proceedings consist of 18 articles based on papers presented on 6th and 7th December 2007 at the international conference "Emperor Sigismund (†1437). Rulership in Practice, Charters and Rituals" at Masaryk-University's, Brno, Historical Institute. The conference's idea benefited from a twofold opportunity: To commemorate the anniversary of Sigismund's death on 9th December 1437 in the Moravian town of Znojmo and to conclude the international Vienna based Regesta-Imperii-project P 17519-G08 "Sigismund (†1437), Kaiser im Reich, in Ungarn und in Böhmen", which had been funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) since 2004. Sigismund, the secondborn son of ever popular emperor Charles IV. (1316-1378), came to wear not only the crown of the Holy Roman Empire but also of the Hungarian and Bohemian Kingdoms. Thus he ruled over a truly European empire that embraced partly or in total modern day's Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, France, Luxembourg, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia. This vast geographical sphere of influence spanned very different cultural, social, economic and political realities, which make it difficult to grasp the integrity of Sigismund's complex reign, but make clear its extensive European dimensions. The current volume presents the mentioned project's first outcomes. The members of the Viennese team mainly concentrate on diplomatics and charter-issuing practice, subjects so far neglected in the scientific research dedicated to Sigismund and his time. Therefore their papers for the most part deal with diverse aspects of Sigismund's production of charters and letters. Including methodical approaches of neighbouring disciplines, they treat the question of typology of Sigismund's charters and charter-formulas as well as subjects of administrative and cultural history and communication studies. In addition the papers of the other involved international authors contribute to different aspects on the field of historical regional studies, administrative, religious, and cultural history as much as to the history of diplomacy, rituals, and art during the era of Sigismund's reign. Using instructive examples they all aim at shedding a light on the complex relations between Sigismund and his court to certain regions or social groups, or respectively on the role of written, oral, and symbolical communication and the use of ritual in practical rulership. The papers' main emphasis consists in Sigismund's relations to southwestern Germany, his rule in the Bohemian Lands and the historiographical work of Eberhard Windeck. The current volume throws a light on some aspects of Sigismund's rulership in practice, which either have not been dealt with at all by German historians so far, or at least seriously modify some of the popular ideas on Sigismund and his rule. The conference proceedings in their entirety give new impetus to scientific activity concentrating on the production of Sigismund's chancery and open new, innovative approaches to research on late medieval practice of royal rulership in general.

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