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The Grammar of Multilingualism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450121 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-012-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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This volume investigates the nature of grammatical representations in speakers who master multiple languages. Since the early days of modern formal approaches to grammar, most work has been based on the language of monolingual humans. Less work has been conducted based on data from speakers who possess more than one language. Although important insights have been gained from a monolingual focus, there is every reason to believe that bi- and multilingual data can inform linguistic theory. A lot of ongoing work demonstrates that this is indeed the case, and the current volume contributes to this growing literature. Thus, the research topic addresses a number of questions relating to grammatical structures in multilingual speakers as well as the methodological issues that arise in the context of studying such speakers. A better understanding of the grammatical sides of multilingualism is crucial for understanding the human language capacity and in turn for offering better advice to the public concerning issues of language choice for multilingual children and adults, education, and language deficits in multilingual individuals.

Inquisitive Semantics

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Book Series: Oxford Surveys in Semantics and Pragmatics ISBN: 9780198814788 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198814788.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Philosophy --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-14 11:21:02
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There is an age-old tradition in linguistics and philosophy to identify the meaning of a entence with its truth-conditions. This can be explained by the fact that linguistic and philosophical investigations are usually carried out in a logical framework that was originally designed to characterize valid reasoning. Indeed, in order to determine whether an argument is valid, it suffices to know the truth-conditions of the premises and conclusion. However, argumentation is neither the sole, nor the primary function of language. One task that language more widely and ordinarily fulfils is to enable the exchange of information between conversational participants. Inquisitive semantics is a new logical framework for the analysis of this fundamental usage of language. Information exchange can be seen as a process of raising and resolving issues. Inquisitive semantics provides a new formal notion of issues, which makes it possible to model various concepts that are crucial for the analysis of linguistic information exchange in a more refined and more principled way than has been possible in previous frameworks. This book provides a detailed exposition of inquisitive semantics, and demonstrates its benefits with a range of applications in the semantic analysis of questions, coordination, modals, conditionals, and intonation.&#xD;

A Machine-Checked, Type-Safe Model of Java Concurrency : Language, Virtual Machine, Memory Model, and Verified Compiler

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ISBN: 9783866448858 Year: Pages: XXI, 412 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000028867 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The Java programming language provides safety and security guarantees such as type safety and its security architecture. They distinguish it from other mainstream programming languages like C and C++. In this work, we develop a machine-checked model of concurrent Java and the Java memory model and investigate the impact of concurrency on these guarantees. From the formal model, we automatically obtain an executable verified compiler to bytecode and a validated virtual machine.

From Formal Semantics to Verified Slicing : A Modular Framework with Applications in Language Based Security

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ISBN: 9783866445949 Year: Pages: XIX, 203 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000020678 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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This book presents a modular framework for slicing in the proof assistant Isabelle/HOL which is based on abstract control flow graphs. Building on such abstract structures renders the correctness results language-independent. To prove that they hold for a specific language, it remains to instantiate the framework with this language, which requires a formal semantics of this language in Isabelle/HOL. We show that formal semantics even for sophisticated high-level languages are realizable.

Beyond the body? The Future of Embodied Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197972 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-797-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Embodied cognition represents one of most important research programs in contemporary cognitive science. Although there is a diversity of opinion concerning the nature of embodiment, the core idea is that cognitive processes are influenced by body morphology, emotions, and sensorimotor systems. This idea is supported by an ever increasing collection of empirical studies that fall into two broad classes: one consisting of experiments that implicate action, emotion, and perception systems in seemingly abstract cognitive tasks and the other consisting of experiments that demonstrate the contribution of bodily interaction with the external environment to the performance of such tasks. Now that the research program of embodied cognition is well established, the time seems right for assessing its further promise and potential limitations. This research topic aims to create an interdisciplinary forum for discussing where we go from here. Given that we have good reason to think that the body influences cognition in surprisingly robust ways, the central question is no longer whether or not any cognitive processes are embodied. Instead, other questions have come to the fore: To what extent are cognitive processes in general embodied? Are there disembodied processes? Among those that are embodied, how are they embodied? Is there more than one kind of embodiment? Is embodiment a matter of degree? There are a number of specific issues that could be addressed by submissions to this research topic. Some supporters of embodied cognition eschew representations. Should anti-representationalism be a core part of an embodied approach? What role should dynamical models play? Research in embodied cognition has tended to focus on the importance of sensorimotor areas for cognition. What are the functions of multimodal or amodal brain areas? Abstract concepts have proved to be a challenge for embodied cognition. How should they be handled? Should researchers allow for some form of weak embodiment? Currently, there is a split between those who offer a simulation-based approach to embodiment and those who offer an enactive approach. Who is right? Should there be a rapprochement between these two groups? Some experimental and robotics researchers have recently shown a great deal of interest in the idea that external resources such as language can serve as form of cognitive scaffolding. What are the implications of this idea for embodied cognition? This research topic aims to bring together empirical and theoretical work from a diversity of perspectives. Submissions are sought from any of the major disciplines associated with cognitive science, including but not necessarily limited to anthropology, cognitive psychology, computational modeling, linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy, robotics, and social psychology. Researchers are encouraged to submit papers discussing experiments, methods, models, or theories that speak to the issue of the future of embodied cognition.

Semantics and Morphosyntactic Variation: Qualities and the Grammar of Property Concepts

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Book Series: Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics ISBN: 9780198744580 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744580.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: RCUK
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-27 11:01:52
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Systematic variation in form between semantic equivalents across languages is a key explanandum of linguistic theory. Two contrasting views of the role of lexical semantics in the analysis of such variation can be found in the literature: (1) uniformity, whereby lexical meaning is universal, and morphosyntactic variation arises from idiosyncratic differences in the inventory and phonological shape of language-particular functional material, and (2) transparency, whereby systematic variation in form arises from systematic variation in the meaning of basic lexical items. This volume contrasts these views as applied to the empirical domain of property concept sentences—sentences expressing adjectival predication and their translational equivalents across languages. Demonstrating that property concept sentences vary systematically between possessive and predicative form, the authors propose a transparentist analysis of this variation that links it to the lexical denotations of basic property concept lexemes. At the heart of the analysis are qualities: mass-like model-theoretic objects that closely resemble scales. The authors contrast their transparentist analysis with uniformitarian alternatives, demonstrating its theoretical and empirical advantages. They then show that the proposed theory of qualities can account for interesting and novel observations in two central domains of grammatical theory: the theory of lexical categories, and the theory of mass nouns. The overall results highlight the importance of the lexicon as a locus of generalizations about the limits of crosslinguistic variation.

Accessing Conceptual Representations for Speaking

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450114 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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For speaking, words in the lexicon are somehow activated from conceptual representations but we know surprisingly little about how this works precisely. Which of the attributes of the concept DOG (e.g. BARKS, IS WALKED WITH A LEASH, CARNIVORE, ANIMATE) have to be activated in a given situation to be able to select the word ‘dog’? Are there things we know about dogs that are always activated for naming and others that are only activated in certain contexts or even never? To date, investigations on lexical access in speaking have largely focused on the effects of distractor nouns on the naming latency of a target noun. We have learned that distractors from the same semantic category (e.g. ‘cat’) hinder naming, but associatively related distractors (‘leash’) may facilitate or hinder naming. However, associatively related words can have all kinds of semantic relationships to a target word, and, with few exceptions, the effects of specific semantic relationships other than membership in the same category as the target concept have not been systematically investigated. This special issue aims at moving forward towards a more detailed account of how precisely conceptual information is used to access the lexicon in speaking and what corresponding format of conceptual representations needs to be assumed.

Spatial Cognition and the Semantics of Prepositions in English, Polish and Russian

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876904214 Year: Pages: 172 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:51
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The object of this work will be a selected group of prepositions in English, Polish and Russian which can express spatial relationships? This study focuses on "everyday" usage of the languages in question.

The Semantics of Chaos in Tjutčev

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876902616 Year: Pages: 149 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:58
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In der Reihe Slavistische Beiträge werden vor allem slavistische Dissertationen des deutschsprachigen Raums sowie vereinzelt auch amerikanische, englische und russische publiziert. Darüber hinaus stellt die Reihe ein Forum für Sammelbände und Monographien etablierter Wissenschafter/innen dar.

Muster und Bedeutung

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ISBN: 9783946198437 9783946198406 9783946198413 9783946198420 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.16994/bam Language: German
Publisher: Modern Academic Publishing
Subject: Computer Science --- Science (General) --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-16 11:21:02
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The subject of this thesis is a computational linguistic model of Meaning Constitution in linguistic units. Taking the phenomenon of variability of linguistic meaning as its starting point, Meaning Constitution is described as an information-processing step, which is then implemented and empirically tested in a series of linguistic experiments. In this thesis, Meaning Constitution is understood as a dynamic process in which the meaning of linguistic units only becomes concrete within local contexts in relation to their general meaning potential. This dynamic concept of meaning is based on a central assumption of Cognitive Semantics, according to which meanings do not exist independently of the context. The motivation for the implementation of a computational linguistic model of its own is the fact that the conception of meaning in Cognitive Semantics itself does not involve such an operationalisation – which, strictly speaking, means that it must be regarded as not falsifiable.&#xD;

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