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Flexible Electronics: Fabrication and Ubiquitous Integration

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ISBN: 9783038978282 / 9783038978299 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-829-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Flexible Electronics platforms are increasingly used in the fields of sensors, displays, and energy conversion with the ultimate goal of facilitating their ubiquitous integration in our daily lives. Some of the key advantages associated with flexible electronic platforms are: bendability, lightweight, elastic, conformally shaped, nonbreakable, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and large-area. To realize their full potential, however, it is necessary to develop new methods for the fabrication of multifunctional flexible electronics at a reduced cost and with an increased resistance to mechanical fatigue. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase short communications, research papers, and review articles that focus on novel methodological development for the fabrication, and integration of flexible electronics in healthcare, environmental monitoring, displays and human-machine interactivity, robotics, communication and wireless networks, and energy conversion, management, and storage.

Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Structural Lightweight Alloys

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ISBN: 9783039213870 / 9783039213887 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-388-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The need to reduce the ecological footprint of water/land/air vehicles in this era of climate change requires pushing the limits regarding the development of lightweight structures and materials. This requires a thorough understanding of their thermomechanical behavior at several stages of the production chain. Moreover, during service, the response of lightweight alloys under the simultaneous influence of mechanical loads and temperature can determine the lifetime and performance of a multitude of structural components. The present Special Issue, comprising eight original research articles, is dedicated to disseminating current efforts around the globe aimed at advancing understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of structural lightweight alloys under processing or service conditions.

Mixed Matrix Membranes

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ISBN: 9783039219766 / 9783039219773 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-977-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have attracted a large amount of interest in research laboratories worldwide in recent decades, motivated by the gap between a growing interest in developing novel mixed matrix membranes by various research groups and the lack of large-scale implementation. This Special Issue contains six publications dealing with the current opportunities and challenges of mixed matrix membranes development and applications to solve environmental and health challenges of the society of 21st century.

Siloxane-Based Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038971252 / 9783038971269 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-126-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, a collection of 12 original contributions and 4 reviews, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the preparation, characterization, and applications of polymeric nanocomposites comprising nanoparticles. The concept of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers came about three decades ago, following the outstanding discovery of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. One of the main ideas behind this approach is to improve the matrix mechanical performance. The nanoparticles exhibit higher specific surface area, surface energy, and density compared to microparticles and, hence, lower nanofiller concentrations are needed to attain properties comparable to, or even better than, those obtained by conventional microfiller loadings, which facilitates processing and minimizes the increase in composite weight. The addition of nanoparticles into different polymer matrices opens up an important research area in the field of composite materials. Moreover, many different types of inorganic nanoparticles, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and ceramic and metallic nanoparticles, have been incorporated into polymers for their application in a wide range of fields, ranging from medicine to photovoltaics, packaging, and structural applications.

Keywords

fabrication --- multielectrode array (MEA) --- PDMS --- PDMS etching --- plateau-shaped electrode --- recessed electrode --- spinal cord signal recording --- underexposure --- organosilane --- quartz microcrystal --- encapsulant --- refractive index --- thermal conductivity --- poly(dimethylsiloxanes) --- surface modification --- nanosilica --- diethyl carbonate --- carbon content --- morphology --- coatings --- fillers --- hybrid hydrogel --- MAPOSS --- mechanical properties --- swelling --- drug release --- dental resin --- methacryl POSS --- shrinkage --- hardness --- scratch resistance --- ceramizable silicone rubber --- borate --- halloysite --- composite --- ceramizable mechanism --- polysiloxanes --- mortar --- basalt fibre --- roughness --- surface free energy --- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) --- hydrophilic --- non-releasable --- polydimethylsiloxane --- coatings --- cross-linking --- surface --- amphiphilic --- anti-bioadhesion --- hyperbranched poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) --- hydrolytic polycondensation --- 29Si-NMR --- topology of polysiloxane chains --- polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes --- high molecular weight --- nanoparticles --- PDMS --- sugar templating process --- 3D porous network --- thermal stability --- TG-FTIR --- X-ray (Micro-CT) microtomography --- sol-gel --- hybrids --- chlorogenic acid --- bioactivity --- FTIR --- TG --- polysiloxanes --- theranostics --- drug delivery --- nanomedicine --- PDMS --- silicon --- ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings --- low surface energy materials --- fluorinated siloxane resin

MEMS Technology for Biomedical Imaging Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216048 / 9783039216055 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-605-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Biomedical imaging is the key technique and process to create informative images of the human body or other organic structures for clinical purposes or medical science. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology has demonstrated enormous potential in biomedical imaging applications due to its outstanding advantages of, for instance, miniaturization, high speed, higher resolution, and convenience of batch fabrication. There are many advancements and breakthroughs developing in the academic community, and there are a few challenges raised accordingly upon the designs, structures, fabrication, integration, and applications of MEMS for all kinds of biomedical imaging. This Special Issue aims to collate and showcase research papers, short commutations, perspectives, and insightful review articles from esteemed colleagues that demonstrate: (1) original works on the topic of MEMS components or devices based on various kinds of mechanisms for biomedical imaging; and (2) new developments and potentials of applying MEMS technology of any kind in biomedical imaging. The objective of this special session is to provide insightful information regarding the technological advancements for the researchers in the community.

Keywords

tilted microcoil --- electromagnetically-driven --- surface micromachining --- polyimide capillary --- MEMS --- ego-motion estimation --- indoor navigation --- monocular camera --- scale ambiguity --- wearable sensors --- photoacoustic --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- miniaturized microscope --- lead-free piezoelectric materials --- high frequency ultrasonic transducer --- needle-type --- high spatial resolution --- ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer --- Si lens --- tight focus --- finite element simulation --- low noise amplifier (LNA) --- noise figure --- smart hydrogels --- bio-sensors --- chemo-sensor --- electrochemical sensors --- transduction techniques --- near-field microwave --- microwave resonator --- microwave remote sensing --- potentiometric sensor --- gold nanoparticles --- metal oxide field-effect transistor --- chemo-FET --- bio-FET --- photoacoustic imaging --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- MEMS scanning mirror --- micromachined US transducer --- microring resonator --- acoustic delay line --- MEMS mirror --- Lissajous scanning --- pseudo-resonant --- sensing --- imaging --- display --- MEMS actuators --- microendoscopy --- confocal --- two-photon --- wide-filed imaging --- photoacoustic --- fluorescence --- scanner --- capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) --- acoustics --- micromachining --- capacitive --- transducer --- modelling --- fabrication --- 3D Printing --- piezoelectric array --- ultrasonic transducer --- ultrasonic imaging --- micro-optics --- bioimaging --- microtechnology --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- in vitro --- in vivo --- cantilever waveguide --- electrostatic actuator --- non-resonating scanner --- optical scanner --- push-pull actuator --- rib waveguide --- n/a

Smart and Functional Polymers

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215904 / 9783039215911 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-591-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book is based on the Special Issue of the journal Molecules on “Smart and Functional Polymers”. The collected research and review articles focus on the synthesis and characterization of advanced functional polymers, polymers with specific structures and performances, current improvements in advanced polymer-based materials for various applications, and the opportunities and challenges in the future. The topics cover the emerging synthesis and characterization technology of smart polymers, core?shell structure polymers, stimuli-responsive polymers, anhydrous electrorheological materials fabricated from conducting polymers, reversible polymerization systems, and biomedical polymers for drug delivery and disease theranostics. In summary, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest synthesis approaches, representative structures and performances, and various applications of smart and functional polymers. It will serve as a useful reference for all researchers and readers interested in polymer sciences and technologies.

Keywords

amphiphilicity --- phase change --- polyamino acids --- degradability --- fine-tuning --- pH responsive --- poly(methacrylamide)s --- phase transition --- catalyst --- CO2 --- heterogeneous catalysis --- molecular sieve --- polyether imidazole ionic liquid --- Vitamin E --- albumin --- core-shell nanoparticles --- paclitaxel --- multi-drug resistance --- breast cancer --- conducting polymer --- composite --- electrorheological --- smart fluid --- viscoelastic --- controlled polymerization --- reversible polymerization --- sustainable polymers --- pH responsive polymers --- nanomedicine --- tumor imaging --- drug delivery --- polymerization dispersion method --- polyaniline --- polyvinyl alcohol --- glutaraldehyde --- chemical activation --- Glycopolymer --- post-polymerization functionalization --- perfluoroaryl azides --- Staudinger reaction --- castor oil --- biomedical devices --- polyurethanes --- polycaprolactone-diol --- chitosan --- fluoropolymers --- melt-shear organization --- chemical resistance --- solvent responsiveness --- hydrophobicity --- core/shell particles --- emulsion polymerization --- particle processing --- ?-NaYF4 --- rare earth upconversion nanoparticles --- core–shell structure --- hydrogels --- applications --- targeted drug delivery --- drug release --- hydrophobic drug delivery --- clinical translation --- versatile platform --- administration routes --- diverse therapeutic areas --- hearing loss --- saffron --- endophytic exopolysaccharide --- gentamicin --- cochlear hair cell --- polymeric nanoparticles --- stimuli-sensitive polymers --- co-delivery systems --- synergistic effect --- nucleic acid delivery --- chemotherapy --- phenylboronic acid --- gel --- glucose sensitivity --- drug delivery --- diabetes therapy --- amphiphilic copolymer --- hydrolyzable polyurea --- micelle --- controlled drug delivery --- cancer chemotherapy --- polymerization or post-polymerization modification methods --- polymer-based supramolecular chemistry --- stimuli-responsive polymers --- shape memory polymers --- self-healing polymers --- polymers for industrial catalysis --- polymers for water or effluent treatment --- polymers for sensing, separation, and purification --- polymers for fabrication --- renewable polymer materials used for agriculture --- functional polymers used in food science --- polymers for information storage, electronics, and energy conversion --- functional polymers for diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, and tissue engineering --- polymers with biological activity (e.g., antitumor, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial activity) --- polymer-based medical devices

Responsive Architecture

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216987 / 9783039216994 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-699-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book is a collection of articles that have been published in the Special Issue “Responsive Architecture” of the MDPI journal Buildings. The eleven articles within cover various areas of sensitive architecture, including the design of packaging structures reacting to supporting components; structural efficiency of bent columns in indigenous houses; roof forms responsive to buildings depending on their resiliently transformed steel shell parts; creative design of building free shapes covered with transformed shells; artistic structural concepts of the architect and civil engineer; digitally designed airport terminal using wind analysis; rationalized shaping of sensitive curvilinear steel construction; interactive stories of responsive architecture; transformed shell roof constructions as the main determinant in the creative shaping of buildings without shapes that are sensitive to man-made and natural environments; thermally sensitive performances of a special shielding envelope on balconies; quantification of generality and adaptability of building layout using the SAGA method; and influence of initial conditions on the simulation of the transient temperature field inside a wall.

Keywords

bent piles --- structural systems --- vernacular houses --- Ammatoan houses --- building structure --- effectivity --- strength --- corrugated shell roof --- free-form building --- architectural form --- folded sheet --- thin-walled profile --- shape transformation --- steel construction --- building free-form structure --- corrugated shell roof --- architectural form --- thin-walled open profile --- shape transformation --- folded sheet --- steel construction --- performance-oriented design --- parametric architecture --- form-finding --- CFD --- wind analysis --- digital tools --- steel bar structures --- structural analysis --- parametric design --- algorithmic-aided shaping --- responsive architecture --- shadows --- Grasshopper --- Karamba 3D --- interactive architecture --- interaction narrative --- user experience --- situatedness --- agent-based theory --- building free form structure --- corrugated shell roof --- integrated architectural form --- thin-walled open profile --- shape transformation --- folded sheet --- adaptive envelope --- thermal performances --- spanish balcony --- simulation and computational design studies --- responsive architecture --- kinetic envelope --- adaptive design --- interactive architecture --- moveable facade components --- carrier component structures --- sensor interaction --- digital fabrication --- adaptability --- generality --- flexibility --- evaluation tool --- network analysis --- Space Syntax --- justified plan graphs --- spatial analysis --- architectural morphology --- space plan --- boundary conditions for simulation --- initial conditions --- thermal conditions --- heat flow --- numerical analysis --- experimental measurement --- outdoor test cells

MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216345 / 9783039216352 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-635-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Due to the ever-expanding applications of micro/nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS) as sensors and actuators, interest in their development has rapidly expanded over the past decade. Encompassing various excitation and readout schemes, the MEMS/NEMS devices transduce physical parameter changes, such as temperature, mass or stress, caused by changes in desired measurands, to electrical signals that can be further processed. Some common examples of NEMS/MEMS sensors include pressure sensors, accelerometers, magnetic field sensors, microphones, radiation sensors, and particulate matter sensors. Despite a long history of development, fabrication of novel MEMS/NEMS devices still poses unique challenges due to their requirement for a suspended geometry; and many new fabrication techniques have been proposed to overcome these challenges. However, further development of these techniques is still necessary, as newer materials such as compound semiconductors, and 2-dimensional materials are finding their way in various MEMS/NEMS applications, with more complex structures and potentially smaller dimensions.

Keywords

thermoelectric power sensor --- wideband --- GaAs MMIC --- MEMS --- floating slug --- back cavity --- microwave measurement --- MEMS --- high temperature pressure sensors --- AlGaN/GaN circular HFETs --- GaN diaphragm --- adaptive control --- backstepping approach --- tracking performance --- microgyroscope --- resonant frequency --- resistance parameter --- micro fluidic --- oil detection --- MEMS --- microactuator --- magnetic --- micro-NIR spectrometer --- scanning grating mirror --- deflection position detector --- dual-mass MEMS gyroscope --- frequency tuning --- frequency split --- quadrature modulation signal --- frequency mismatch --- suspended micro hotplate --- single-layer SiO2 --- temperature uniformity --- power consumption --- infrared image --- MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) --- inertial switch --- acceleration switch --- threshold accuracy --- squeeze-film damping --- photonic crystal cavity --- photonic crystal nanobeam cavity --- optical sensor --- refractive index sensor --- nanoparticle sensor --- optomechanical sensor --- temperature sensor --- Accelerometer readout --- low noise --- low zero-g offset --- microfluidic --- femtosecond laser --- rapid fabrication --- glass welding --- bonding strength --- accelerometer design --- spring design --- analytical model --- gas sensor --- micropellistor --- microdroplet --- pulse inertia force --- methane --- tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) --- wet etching --- silicon --- 3D simulation --- level-set method --- single crystal silicon --- anisotropy --- vibrating ring gyroscope --- frequency split --- accelerometer --- tunnel magnetoresistive effect --- electrostatic force feedback --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039218806 / 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

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