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Groundwater - Resource Characterisation and Management Aspects

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ISBN: 9781838805142 9781838805159 9781838807115 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73345 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book covers aspects of groundwater resource characterisation and management. The inherent heterogeneous and isotropic nature of aquifers coupled with the unpredictable effects of climate change calls for continuous improvement and understanding of hydrogeology site characterisation techniques in theory and application to better understand and manage groundwater. We believe that this book will be useful for various professionals involved in groundwater-related work to improve the theoretical and practical understanding of hydrogeology site characterisation techniques and groundwater resource management skills.

Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring

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ISBN: 9783038429777 9783038429784 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-978-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 08:55:30
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Basin hydrology is related to the soil–atmosphere interaction driven by several blended processes constrained by the space–time variability of precipitation and soil moisture, along with overland flow and flood routing in natural channels. The emerging technologies for the monitoring and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and soil moisture over a catchment, as well as the hillslope and river runoff, are of considerable interest to predict the hydrological responses of a catchment. In this context, this Special Issue, with its eleven theoretical and applied contributions, aims to shed light on the more recent advances in ground observations and remote sensing products, as well as on the benefits resulting from the integration of technological innovation and the development of new ideas in hydrology science. To this purpose, the accepted articles, written by leading researchers in their field, are intended to present and discuss experimental analyses at the catchment scale in terms of: a) intensive measurement campaigns of soil moisture by in situ sensors, remote sensing and modelling approaches; b) discharge monitoring also for high floods, by leveraging advanced technology for ground surface velocity measurements and spaceborne observations of water surface elevation, river width and slope; c) solid precipitation-measuring methods and the selection of snow gauge stations by merging meteorological, hydrological and remote sensing datasets; d) changes in daily precipitation of different intensities over large river basins along with the identification of the space–time rainfall field for different climatic regions ; and finally e) spatial evaporation patterns in different climate regions and assessment of the dominant climate factors affecting the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Hopefully this Special Issue provides different useful insights into advancements in emerging technologies for the monitoring of key hydrological variables and will support the design of a scalable system of operational tools leading to suitable flood mitigation measures and reliable real-time warning systems.

Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology ISSN: 21947244 ISBN: 9789812872449 9789812872456 Year: Pages: 59 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-287-245-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-12 12:05:42
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As cities develop, more land is converted into impervious surfaces, which do not allow water to infiltrate. Careful urban planning is needed to ensure that the hydrologic cycle and water quality of the catchment areas are not affected. There are techniques that can attenuate peak flow during rain events and reduce the amount of metals, nutrients, and bacteria that enter the urban water cycle. This brief gives a short introduction on bioretention systems and documents the effectiveness of some 36 plant species in removing water pollutants. A summary on the maintenance requirements is also presented.

Water Resource Systems Planning and Management: An Introduction to Methods, Models, and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319442327 9783319442341 Year: Pages: 624 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44234-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-11 12:26:06
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This revised, updated textbook presents a systems approach to the planning, management, and operation of water resources infrastructure in the environment. Previously published in 2005 by UNESCO and Deltares (Delft Hydraulics at the time), this new edition, written again with contributions from Jery R. Stedinger, Jozef P. M. Dijkman, and Monique T. Villars, is aimed equally at students and professionals. It introduces readers to the concept of viewing issues involving water resources as a system of multiple interacting components and scales. It offers guidelines for initiating and carrying out water resource system planning and management projects. It introduces alternative optimization, simulation, and statistical methods useful for project identification, design, siting, operation and evaluation and for studying post-planning issues. The authors cover both basin-wide and urban water issues and present ways of identifying and evaluating alternatives for addressing multiple-purpose and multi-objective water quantity and quality management challenges. Reinforced with cases studies, exercises, and media supplements throughout, the text is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in water resource planning and management as well as for practicing planners and engineers in the field.

The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429098 9783038429104 Year: Pages: X, 248 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-01 11:22:11
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Remotely sensed data are nowadays commonly used for regional/global monitoring of hydrological variables including soil moisture, rainfall, water levels, flood extent, evapotranspiration or land water storage, as well as the forcing, calibration and assimilation into hydrodynamic, hydrological and hydrometeorological models. In the years to come, recent and future satellite sensors, some of them specifically designed for hydrological purposes, will provide systematic observations of hydrological parameters (e.g., surface and sub-surface storage and flux) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This will offer new applications for the hydrological community. This book presents reviews and recent advances of general interest regarding the use of remote sensing for hydrology. The chapters are related to any hydrological reservoir (e.g., surface storage, soil moisture, groundwater, etc.) or flux (e.g., rainfall, evapotranspiration, discharge, etc.), the integration of satellite data into hydrological models, and the improvements to hydrology that can be expected from future satellite missions.

Knowing the Salween River: Resource Politics of a Contested Transboundary River

Authors: ---
Book Series: The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science ISBN: 9783319774404 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-77440-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Geography --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Business and Management --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:17
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This open access book focuses on the Salween River, shared by China, Myanmar, and Thailand, that is increasingly at the heart of pressing regional development debates. The basin supports the livelihoods of over 10 million people, and within it there is great socio-economic, cultural and political diversity. The basin is witnessing intensifying dynamics of resource extraction, alongside large dam construction, conservation and development intervention, that is unfolding within a complex terrain of local, national and transnational governance. With a focus on the contested politics of water and associated resources in the Salween basin, this book offers a collection of empirical case studies that highlights local knowledge and perspectives. Given the paucity of grounded social science studies in this contested basin, this book provides conceptual insights at the intersection of resource governance, development, and politics of knowledge relevant to researchers, policy-makers and practitioners at a time when rapid change is underway. - Fills a significant knowledge gap on a major river in Southeast Asia, with empirical and conceptual contributions - Inter-disciplinary perspective and by a range of writers, including academics, policy-makers and civil society researchers, the majority from within Southeast Asia - New policy insights on a river at the cross-roads of a major political and development transition ;

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:55:31
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

Chapter 8 The Status and Role of the alpine Cryosphere in Central Asia (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781138348882 9780429436475 Year: Pages: 23 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Environmental Sciences --- Geography --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-01 11:21:04
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The alpine cryosphere including snow, glaciers and permafrost are critical to water management in the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) and larger Central Asia (CA) under changing climate: as they store large amounts of water in its solid forms. Most cryospheric components in the Aral Sea Basin are close to melting point, and hence very vulnerable to a slight increase in air temperature with significant consequences to long-term water availability and to water resources variability and extremes. Current knowledge about different components of cryosphere and their connection to climate in the Basin and in the entire Central Asia, varies. While it is advanced in the topics of snow and glaciers, knowledge on permafrost it rather limited. Observed trends in runoff point in the direction of increasing water availability in July and August at least until mid-century and increasing possibility for water storage in reservoirs and aquifers. However, eventually this will change as glaciers waste away. Future runoff may change considerably after mid-century and start to decline if not compensated by increasing precipitation. Cryosphere monitoring systems are the basis for sound estimates of water availability and water-related hazards associated with snow, glaciers and permafrost. They require a well-distributed observational network for all cryospheric variables. Such systems need to be re-established in the Basin after the breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. This process is slowly emerging in the region. Collaboration between local operational hydro-meteorological services and academic sector, and with international research networks may improving the observing capabilities in high mountain regions of CA Asia in general and the ASB specifically.

Forest Hydrology and Watershed

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213856 9783039213863 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-386-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Hydrological processes in forested watersheds are influenced by environmental, physiological, and biometric factors such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, species type, leaf area, and extent and structure of forest ecosystems. Over the past two centuries, forest coverage and forest structures have been impacted globally by anthropogenic activities, for example, forest harvesting, and conversion of forested landscapes for plantations and urbanization. In addition, since the industrial revolution, climate change has resulted in profound impacts on forest ecosystems due to higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration or CO2 fertilization, warmer temperatures, changes in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and natural disturbances. As a result, hydrological processes in forested watersheds have been altered by these natural and anthropogenic factors and these changes are expected to accelerate due to future changing climatic conditions.

Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288236 / 9783039288243 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-824-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forests cover 30% of the Earth’s land area, or nearly four billion hectares. Enhancing the benefits and ecosystem services of forests has been increasingly recognized as an essential part of nature-based solutions for solving many emerging global environmental problems today. A core science supporting forest management is understanding the interactions of forests, water, and people. These interactions have become increasingly complex under climate change and its associated impacts, such as the increases in the intensity and frequency of drought and floods, increasing population and deforestation, and a rise in global demands for multiple ecosystem services including clean water supply and carbon sequestration. Forest watershed managers have recognized that water management is an essential component of forest management. Global environmental change is posing more challenges for managing forests and water toward sustainable development. New science on forest and water is critically needed across the globe. The International Forests and Water Conference 2018, Valdivia, Chile (http://forestsandwater2018.cl/), a joint effort of the 5th IUFRO International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment and the Second Latin American Conference on Forests and Water provided a unique forum to examine forest and water issues in Latin America under a global context. This book represents a collection of some of the peer-reviewed papers presented at the conference that were published in a Special Issue of Forests.

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