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Salmonella - Distribution, Adaptation, Control Measures and Molecular Technologies

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ISBN: 9789535106616 9789535142898 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.5772/2470 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The discovery of Salmonella in swine in 1885 marked the beginning of intense efforts to control salmonellae that have continued for the past 127 years. The majority of foodborne outbreaks are caused by only a few of the 2500+ known serovars. While progress has been made on many fronts, salmonellosis has yet to be eliminated in either developed or in developing nations. This work represents the collective contributions of authors from all around the world. Chapters in this book address a wide array of topics related to understanding and controlling this pathogen, including: Salmonella as studied in the environment, air and in food products; virulence and pathogenicity; control by bacteriophages and other antimicrobials; bacterial adaptation; etc.

Leishmaniasis - Trends in Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

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ISBN: 9789535112327 9789535142362 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: 10.5772/57067 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Of all the parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse, with a variety of manifestations, from relatively minor cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. It is also widespread, causing human disease in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. The environments in which this disease occurs range from desert to tropical jungle to urban habitats. Not surprisingly, the literature on this disease is written in a variety of languages including Portuguese, Arabic, English and French among others. This book provides a synopsis in English of much of the recent research on leishmaniasis, with a focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease as described by researchers around the world, but with a focus on the research from Brazil and the Middle East.

Herpesviridae

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ISBN: 9789535126102 9789535126119 9789535141853 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.5772/61923 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Herpesviruses are unique among viruses as they encode for a complex self-regulatory system, aggressively invade and persist in the host, evade immune defense, alter all regulatory mechanisms of the macroorganism and modify the replication of heterologous viruses. Environmental factors influence these unconventional relationships. Consequently, a single herpesvirus species can be attributed to a wide range of diseases as etiological agents or cofactors. This book is intended to give an overview on selected clinical hot topics: herpes simplex virus encephalitis, persistent infection in the gingiva, thymidine kinase gene expression causing male infertility, and pharmaceutical reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus for oncolysis. Immune evasion mechanisms and new ways to formulate vaccines are exhaustively reviewed. Finally, a surprise: bovine herpesviruses could serve as models to study the pathomechanism of herpesviruses.

Steps Forwards in Diagnosing and Controlling Influenza

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ISBN: 9789535127321 9789535127338 9789535141631 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/61910 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3-5 million cases of severe influenza worldwide will result in 250,000-500,000 deaths annually. Collectively, data are shared via the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), which includes 143 institutions in 113 WHO member states, to help alert the emergence of antigenic variants or the beginning of a pandemic. In April 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cited the first incidence of human-to-human transmission of pandemic H1N1, also referred to as swine influenza A, which was antigenically distinct from other circulating human H1N1. As the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century, pandemic H1N1 was not included in the annual trivalent vaccine regimen, leaving a large majority of the population unprotected from the newly emerging pathogen.

Current Topics in Malaria

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ISBN: 9789535127895 9789535127901 9789535141440 Year: Pages: 506 DOI: 10.5772/61868 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Malaria is still the main vector-borne parasitic disease in the world. Fortunately, elimination of this disease was achieved in multiple countries during the last decades. During the last decade, a significant reduction of malaria in the Americas was achieved. Nevertheless, many challenges still are ahead in order to reach a higher control and to continue in the elimination toward a world free of malaria in the next decades. This book tries to update the significant epidemiological and clinical research in many aspects with a multinational perspective. This book with 20 chapters is organized into 5 major sections: (I) Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects, (II) Basic Science, (III) Therapeutics and Antimalarials, (IV) Vaccines, and (V) Entomology and Vector Control.

Human Helminthiasis

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ISBN: 9789535129530 9789535129547 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.5772/62673 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Human helminthiasis, known as worm infections, is any macroparasitic disease affecting humans, in which a part of the body is invaded by a lot of worms, known as helminths. They are broadly classified into flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are the most important, being included into the neglected tropical diseases. Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, less cognitive development, lower school and work performance, lower socioeconomic development, and poverty. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are responsible for parasitic infections in as much as a quarter of the human population worldwide. This group of infective diseases has been targeted under the joint action of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies and local governments, trying to achieve their eradication.

HIV/AIDS - Contemporary Challenges

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ISBN: 9789535129615 9789535129622 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.5772/63251 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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With increasing efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS has shifted from a disease with high mortality to a chronic illness with substantial longevity. However, researchers, physicians and social workers still face many challenges, and it is important to raise awareness on several aspects that people living with HIV/AIDS have to deal in their daily lives. This book has assembled an array of chapters on the medical, social and economic aspects of HIV/AIDS. The chapters were written by experts from around the globe reflecting the importance of the topic. This book will be of great interest not only to graduate students but also to active academics and practitioners.

Advances in Treatment of Hepatitis C and B

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ISBN: 9789535129936 9789535129943 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.5772/62815 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
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As in many areas of medicine, treatment of viral hepatitis has seen an acceleration of change driven by new therapies and evolving technology. Thanks to the direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), the era of HCV eradication and cure has begun. As regards to hepatitis B therapy, potent antiviral drugs for suppression of viral replication are available, new research activities to enhance eradication are visible, and these may influence clinical practice in the coming years. This book covers the latest advances in hepatitis C and hepatitis B therapeutics as well as the emerging and investigational treatment strategies. ""Advances in Treatment of Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B"" book is an up-to-date source of information for physicians, residents, and advanced medical students seeking a broader understanding of treatment of viral hepatitis. The authors of the chapters come from many eminent centers around the world and are experts in their respective fields.

Prion - An Overview

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ISBN: 9789535130017 9789535130024 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.5772/63289 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Protein aggregation causes malfunction in several biochemical processes. Genetic and spontaneous formations of these transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal to humans and animals. Conformational change of normal form of the protein to misfolded form causes its accumulation. The misfolded infectious protein agent forms the pathogenesis of the disease. This book presents pathology of the disease along with current knowledge of the structure-activity mechanism in the first two sections. Dyshomeostasis of metals is implicated in the pathogenesis of prions, and this influence is discussed further to understand the prion mechanism. Genetic resistance and immunobiology of the disease are elaborated in the following section. Finally, a computational study on the dynamics of the prion propagation provides a structural basis of the mechanism.

Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis

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ISBN: 9789535130659 9789535130666 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.5772/63008 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The genus Salmonella comprises an important number of bacterial species able to colonize and infect numerous animal species and humans. Although more than a hundred years passed since its discovery, Salmonella still represents a redoubtable and successful microorganism, difficult to deal with. Whether we discuss about typhoid fever or food poisoning, the public health and financial consequences are practically incalculable. The costs attributable to Salmonella contamination of meat, eggs, and vegetables are also very high worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates is an emerging threat not only in humans, and special measures should be addressed to this global problem. The book Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis contains a series of reviews about all-important issues concerning these subjects. It comprises 14 chapters grouped in 4 sections emphasizing new insights into pathogenesis, bacterial detection and antibiotic resistance, infections in animals, risk factors, and control strategies. The new genomic data and the exhaustive presentation of molecular pathogenesis bring novelty to the book and can help to improve our knowledge about Salmonella-induced diseases.

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