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Environmentally Sustainable Livestock Production

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ISBN: 9783038975526 / 9783038975533 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-553-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 10:30:03
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This book looks at key research covering a wide range of aspects of environmental sustainability and the mitigation of environmental impacts of livestock production, including emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), nitrogen and phosphorus excretion, ammonia emissions, land use and land management, and use of energy and other resources. All the globally most important livestock species (beef and dairy cattle, pigs, broiler chicken and laying hens) are covered in the book. The mitigation methods assessed in the papers include general system changes, changes in feeding, improvement of animal health, and new technologies of manure management. The scope of the papers included in this book ranges from farm level mitigation methods to national level system changes. This book also addresses methodological development in assessing the environmental sustainability of the livestock production chains, including holistic methods, such as environmental and social life cycle assessment (LCA) and other modeling approaches.

Nanostructured Solar Cells

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ISBN: 9783038425328 9783038425335 Year: Pages: VIII, 178 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-25 13:23:42
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This book covers major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs. Most recent studies of nanostructured solar cells have been integrated in this book, allowing readers to quickly follow recent developments in this area.

The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture

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ISBN: 9783038426622 9783038426639 Year: Pages: 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:46:13
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Increased awareness about environmental adverse effects of human activities has prompted the use of insecticides with low impact on systems associated to agriculture. Currently, the most successful biological products are based on protein toxins from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis. Because of the remarkable properties of these proteins, their encoding genes were introduced into farming species (the so called Bt-crops), in such a way, that these plants are self-protected against some key insect pests. Despite the fact that a relatively large number of these toxins, with different toxicity ranges, have been described, it is still important to find new resources with novel capabilities to complement, or to replace in the future, the currently used ones. On another hand, it is important to continue studying their mode action in susceptible insects, and the changes occurred in resistant ones, to determine the most effective strategy for long lasting pest control. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to provide updated information on the use of B. thuringiensis and their toxins on different field crops, the interactions of these toxins with other molecules, analyze the biochemical and molecular basis of emerging cases of resistance and, in general, to provide information which can contribute to an effective pest management with these toxins.

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Advances in Environmental Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038970019 9783038970026 Year: Pages: X, 150 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 15:36:59
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The book presents research papers addressing a wide range of environmental topics: water and wastewater treatment and management, soil degradation and conservation, sediment pollution control, environmental impacts of technologies, life cycle analysis (LCA), air quality and indoor environment, and advanced environmental materials. The contributions provide novel and significant scientific results and advanced applications in the field of environmental engineering and provide an integrated view of the trends in solving the problems associated with the achievement of sustainability.

Pediatric Palliative Care

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ISBN: 9783038973508 / 9783038973515 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-351-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-08 09:55:16
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At least 20 million children worldwide would benefit from Pediatric Palliative Care (PPC) annually, and eight million children would need specialized PPC services. In the USA alone, more than 42,000 children, 0–19 years, die annually; fifty-five percent of them are infants younger than one year old. Interdisciplinary PPC is about matching treatment to patient goals and is considered specialized medical care for children with a serious illness. It is focused on relieving pain, distressing symptoms, and stress from a serious illness and is appropriate at any age and at any stage, together with curative treatment. The primary PPC goal is to improve the quality of life both for the child and for his/her family.Sadly, advances in the control of symptoms in children dying of life-limiting diseases have often not kept pace with treatment directed at curing the underlying disease. Data reveal that the majority of distressing symptoms in children with an advanced serious illness (such as pain, dyspnea and nausea/vomiting) are not treated, and, when treated, therapy is commonly ineffective. Emerging evidence shows that palliative care involvement results in improved quality of life, as well as prolongation of life.High-quality pediatric palliative care for children with serious illnesses is now an expected standard of medical care. However, there still remain significant barriers to achieving optimal care, related to lack of formal education, reimbursement issues, the emotional impact of caring for a dying child, and most importantly, the lack of interdisciplinary PPC teams with sufficient staffing.Fortunately, considerable advances have been made in recent years providing PPC around the globe both in resource-poor and resource-rich countries through care provided at children’s hospitals, outpatient palliative care clinics, palliative home care, and free-standing children’s hospice houses. This book, authored by leading authorities in the field, is dedicated to describing existing gaps, as well as the achievements made in clinical care, education, training, and research.

Environmental and Management Factor Contributions to Maize Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976127 / 9783038976134 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-613-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-12 11:50:48
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Agricultural production must increase substantially to meet the increasing per capita demand for food, feed, fuel, and fiber of a rising human census. The amount of arable land is limited due to soil type, weather, and ecosystem considerations; therefore, it is necessary to increase yields on current fields. To obtain the greatest maize (Zea mays L.) yield, a farmer needs to nurture the crop as much as possible. Weather and nitrogen availability are well- known as two factors that normally have the greatest influence on maize yields and grain quality. Some management factors a producer may need to consider while growing a maize crop are mineral fertilization, genotype, plant population, and protection from insects and diseases. Additionally, there are numerous biological and chemical compounds that can stimulate plant growth, such as in-furrow mixes and foliar fungicides. Field management also plays a role in final grain yield, including crop rotation, tillage, soil pH and nutrient levels, weed control, and drainage.This Special Issue Book focuses on weather, soil, and other maize crop management factors and their relative independent and/or interactive influence on maize growth and yield.]

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins

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ISBN: 9783038423454 783038423447 Year: Pages: Pages: X, 246 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-27 09:55:00
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The connections between water, food and energy are currently being discussed more than ever before, thanks to the recently emerged concept of the water–energy–food security nexus. Various organizations and authors have defined and addressed the concept from their own view points: nexus is, indeed in the air.This Special Issue looks at the water–energy–food security nexus in the context of large Asian river basins, with a focus on transboundary rivers shared by several countries. The articles included in the Special Issue analyse what benefits the nexus approach could bring to these kinds of, often quite demanding, settings. And where are the potential pitfalls that call for further development.The thematic areas covered in the Special Issue thus include water resources management; energy planning and policies with an emphasis on hydropower; and food production systems, including fisheries, irrigation and cropland management. Due to its focus on transboundary contexts, the articles also look at the geopolitical, international cooperation and security aspects related to the nexus.The articles of the Special Issue include case studies from relevant transboundary river basins, with a focus on the Mekong River Basin in Southeast Asia as well as the river basins in Central Asia. Articles also include a comparative analysis in several large Asian river basins as well as more theoretical discussions of the water–energy–food security nexus and its linkages to other framings and approaches, such as IWRM and sustainable development.

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:55:31
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

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