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Selected Papers from the 8th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

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ISBN: 9783038977285 / 9783038977292 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-729-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field

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ISBN: 9783038975199 / 9783038975205 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-520-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book entitled “Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field” covers recent trends and original contributions on the use of electric fields (internal and external) for applications for nucleation control and the effect on the kinetics of crystallization processes. This book also includes basic strategies for growing crystals of biological macromolecules for characterization via X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as using modern X-ray-free electron-lasers. There are six main topics covered on this book, including recent insights into the crystallization process from nucleation and growth peculiarities, when using different kinds of electric fields; the effect of external electric fields on the kinetics of the dislocation-free growth of model proteins; the use of very strong external electric fields for the crystallization of a model protein glucose isomerase; and the use of alternant electric fields using different kinds of pulses and their combination with strong magnetic fields. There are also contributions related to applications in developing electron-transfer devices as well as graphene-based platforms for electrocrystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction characterization.

Computational Aerodynamic Modeling of Aerospace Vehicles

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ISBN: 9783038976103 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-611-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Currently, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions is considered as the state-of-the-art in the modeling of unsteady nonlinear flow physics and offers an early and improved understanding of air vehicle aerodynamics and stability and control characteristics. This Special Issue covers recent computational efforts on simulation of aerospace vehicles including fighter aircraft, rotorcraft, propeller driven vehicles, unmanned vehicle, projectiles, and air drop configurations. The complex flow physics of these configurations pose significant challenges in CFD modeling. Some of these challenges include prediction of vortical flows and shock waves, rapid maneuvering aircraft with fast moving control surfaces, and interactions between propellers and wing, fluid and structure, boundary layer and shock waves. Additional topic of interest in this Special Issue is the use of CFD tools in aircraft design and flight mechanics. The problem with these applications is the computational cost involved, particularly if this is viewed as a brute-force calculation of vehicle’s aerodynamics through its flight envelope. To make progress in routinely using of CFD in aircraft design, methods based on sampling, model updating and system identification should be considered.

Keywords

wake --- bluff body --- square cylinder --- DDES --- URANS --- turbulence model --- large eddy simulation --- Taylor–Green vortex --- numerical dissipation --- modified equation analysis --- truncation error --- MUSCL --- dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model --- kinetic energy dissipation --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- microfluidics --- numerical methods --- gasdynamics --- shock-channel --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG–FEM) --- fluid mechanics --- characteristics-based scheme --- multi-directional --- Riemann solver --- Godunov method --- bifurcation --- wind tunnel --- neural networks --- modeling --- unsteady aerodynamic characteristics --- high angles of attack --- hypersonic --- wake --- chemistry --- slender-body --- angle of attack --- detection --- after-body --- S-duct diffuser --- flow distortion --- flow control --- vortex generators --- aeroelasticity --- reduced-order model --- flutter --- wind gust responses --- computational fluid dynamics --- convolution integral --- sharp-edge gust --- reduced order aerodynamic model --- geometry --- meshing --- aerodynamics --- CPACS --- MDO --- VLM --- Euler --- CFD --- variable fidelity --- multi-fidelity --- aerodynamic performance --- formation --- VLM --- RANS --- hybrid reduced-order model --- quasi-analytical --- aeroelasticity --- flexible wings --- subsonic --- wing–propeller aerodynamic interaction --- p-factor --- installed propeller --- overset grid approach

Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Recovery

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ISBN: 9783039211067 / 9783039211074 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-107-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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It is well-known that colloid and interface science and petroleum production are inextricably linked. Whether in the reservoir, with its porous structure, or during recovery, crude oil is intimately associated with rock surfaces and with water, often in the form of emulsions. This situation leads to highly complex systems, comprising multiple colloids and interfaces, which require to be optimized if oil is to be recovered efficiently, both in terms of economic cost and with due concern for the environment. This book contains a compilation of contemporary research topics which illustrate various aspects of the importance of colloids and interfaces in crude oil recovery through modifying conditions between the rock, crude oil, and water in the reservoir, in order to achieve improved oil recovery. The specific topics covered relate both to conventional oils, in which waterflooding is the most common secondary and tertiary means of recovery, and to non-conventional heavy oil and natural bitumen, which require thermal recovery methods, owing to their high viscosity.

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

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