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Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People

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ISBN: 9783038974574 / 9783038974581 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-458-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-14 10:56:39
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Proteins and Muscle in Aging People”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either reporting original research or reviewing the scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on the mechanisms linking dietary protein with muscle quality and quantity. Articles presenting results from clinical trials testing protein interventions on muscle mass and function are welcome. The Special Issue aims at including articles spanning different disciplines to explore the topic of interest. Reports from basic to clinical and population research are suitable. Articles adopting a longitudinal approach or reporting data from life-long interventions/observations in the exploration of the theme will be given special consideration.Potential topics include, but are not limited to:•Description of patterns of dietary protein consumption across life•Influence of dietary protein intake on the functional status of older people•Preclinical and clinical studies describing the mechanisms through which protein intake modifies muscle mass and function•Protein/amino acid supplementation interventions against sarcopenia, cachexia, or disease conditions associated with muscle wasting in old age•Disease-specific alterations modifying the effects of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscles•Effects of the interactions of dietary protein intake and gut microbiota on skeletal muscles]

Nutrients in Infancy

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038425601 9783038425618 Year: Pages: XII, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 13:02:46
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Infants are not just small adults; they have a complex set of nutrient requirements and interactions to account for the high metabolic rate, growth, immunological and cognitive development, etc. Each year there are 138 million births, including 30 million from the least developed countries, where health is most at risk. Nutrition during infancy establishes growth patterns and development which moderate short term and long term health and life expectancy. There is continuing progress in understanding the nutrient composition of breastmilk and the importance nutritious and timely complementary foods. Nutrients at particular risk in the first years of life are iron, iodine, and vitamins A and D. There are still gaps in our knowledge on the influence of maternal diet, body composition and nutritional status on breastmilk nutrients. Interaction of nutrients with the human microbiome and gastro-intestinal tract hormonal secretion are developing fields. While breastmilk remains the “gold standard of pediatric nutrition”, the provisions of nutrients providing for optimal health in infant formulae, including nutrients and probiotics remains an area of research. The assessment of body composition for research and clinical practice has progressed rapidly and is important in understanding later obesity. After six months of age, there are new issues of the interaction of weaning foods and later family foods with the maturing gastro-intestinal tract to promote health and growth. Infant nutrition is made more difficult (and interesting) by the many cultural beliefs related to feeding practices. Developments in all of these fields of research into pediatric nutrition will be explored in this special issue together with state of the art reviews.

Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783038427025 9783038427018 Year: Pages: 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:40:05
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The subject of enteral nutrition is an interesting one both to the healthcare professionals working in this practice area and to the individuals who may benefit from nutritional support. These individuals usually have functional guts but may be suffering from dysphagia (with the underlying neurological deficits) or the effects of radiotherapy treatment. Enteral nutrition involves the provision of nutritional support to individuals whose nutritional requirements cannot be met by a normal diet. In particular, it is the process of delivering enteral feed via feeding tubes such nasogastric feeding, nasojejunal and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Often, enteral nutrition provision involves the assessment of nutritional status, the determination of nutritional requirements, the establishment of feeding regimes, and the management of patients, pumps, feeds, and feeding tubes.Researchers in this field are also keen to evaluate the effect of enteral feeding protocols, algorithms, and guidelines on patients with different medical conditions in various care settings. There have also been a series of comparisons between the use of feeding tubes, feeding methods, and management approaches. Economic evaluations of enteral nutrition and Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) teams show the benefits of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF); however, due to the rising cost of HETF, there has been intense debate on the subject. There have been reviews on advances, challenges, and prospects in enteral nutrition.This Special Issue is intended to provide information on recent advances in the area of enteral nutrition.

Forests and Food

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781783741953 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0085 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:50
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"As population estimates for 2050 reach over 9 billion, issues of food security and nutrition have been dominating academic and policy debates. A total of 805 million people are undernourished worldwide and malnutrition affects nearly every country on the planet. Despite impressive productivity increases, there is growing evidence that conventional agricultural strategies fall short of eliminating global hunger, as well as having long-term ecological consequences. Forests can play an important role in complementing agricultural production to address the Sustainable Development Goals on zero hunger. Forests and trees can be managed to provide better and more nutritionally-balanced diets, greater control over food inputs – particularly during lean seasons and periods of vulnerability (especially for marginalised groups) – and deliver ecosystem services for crop production. However forests are undergoing a rapid process of degradation, a complex process that governments are struggling to reverse. This volume provides important evidence and insights about the potential of forests to reducing global hunger and malnutrition, exploring the different roles of landscapes, and the governance approaches that are required for the equitable delivery of these benefits. Forests and Food is essential reading for researchers, students, NGOs and government departments responsible for agriculture, forestry, food security and poverty alleviation around the globe."

Keywords

agriculture --- ecology --- forests --- malnutrition --- hunger --- nutrition --- environment --- food

The Challenge of Protein Crops as a Sustainable Source of Food and Feed for the Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451623 Year: Pages: 325 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-162-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Grain legumes, together with quinoa and amaranth (pseudocereals) and other crops are attractive candidates to satisfy the growing demand for plant protein production worldwide for food and feed. Despite their high value, many protein crops have not been adequately assessed and numerous species are underutilized. Special attention has to be paid to genetic diversity and landraces, and to the key limiting factors affecting yield, including water deficiency and other abiotic and biotic stresses, in order to obtain stable, reliable and sustainable crop production through the introduction and local adaptation of genetically improved varieties. Legumes, the main protein crops worldwide, contribute to the sustainable improvement of the environment due to their ability to fix nitrogen and their beneficial effects on the soil. They play a key role in the crop diversification and sustainable intensification of agriculture, particularly in light of new and urgent challenges, such as climate change and food security. In addition, the role of legumes in nutrition has been recognized as a relevant source of plant protein, together with other benefits for health. Chapters dealing with common bean, lupine, soybean, lentil, cowpea and Medicago are included in this book. Most contributions deal with legumes, but the significant number of papers on different aspects of quinoa gives an idea of the increasing importance of this protein crop. Pseudocereals, such as quinoa and amaranth, are good sources of proteins. Quinoa and amaranth seeds contain lysine, an essential amino acid that is limited in other grains. Nutritional evaluations of quinoa indicate that it constitutes a source of complete protein with a good balance among all of the amino acids needed for human diet, and also important minerals, vitamins, high quality oils and flavonoids. Other protein crops also included in this book are hemp, cotton and cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Although cereals protein content is not high, their seeds are largely used for human consumption. In this book are included articles dealing with all different aspects of protein crops, including nutritional value, breeding, genetic diversity, biotic and abiotic stress, cropping systems or omics, which may be considered crucial to help provide the plant proteins of the future. Overall, the participation of 169 authors in 29 chapters in this book indicates an active scientific community in the field, which appears to be an encouraging reflect of the global awareness of the need for sustainability and the promising future of proteins crops as a source of food and feed.

Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426264 9783038426271 Year: Pages: 528 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 13:09:56
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Optimal nutrition is fundamental for enhancing training, recovery and performance in sport. Therefore, research has aimed to determine the efficacy of appropriate intake of nutrients, fluids, and supplements and their role in exercise performance. The purpose of this Special Issue entitled “Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance” is to highlight recent research examining aspects of sports nutrition and exercise performance. Manuscript submissions of original research, meta-analyses, or reviews of the scientific literature, which targets nutritional strategies to benefit performance and health, are welcome. Studies performed in humans are preferred given the applied nature of this issue.

Hidden Hunger

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ISBN: 9780801451645 9780801467691 9780801467684 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Cornell University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101531
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 11:01:48
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For decades, NGOs targeting world hunger focused on ensuring that adequate quantities of food were being sent to those in need. In the 1990s, the international food policy community turned its focus to the “hidden hunger” of micronutrient deficiencies, a problem that resulted in two scientific solutions: fortification, the addition of nutrients to processed foods, and biofortification, the modification of crops to produce more nutritious yields. This hidden hunger was presented as a scientific problem to be solved by “experts” and scientifically engineered smart foods rather than through local knowledge, which was deemed unscientific and, hence, irrelevant. In Hidden Hunger, Aya Hirata Kimura explores this recent emphasis on micronutrients and smart foods within the international development community and, in particular, how the voices of women were silenced despite their expertise in food purchasing and preparation.

Keywords

Sociology --- NGOs --- food policy --- asia --- indonesia --- women --- development --- nutrition

Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783038429999 9783038970002 Year: Pages: X, 256 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-04 13:00:08
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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of thecarbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, certain disease outcomes may be impacted by the amount and type of dietary carbohydrates consumed. Finally, carbohydrate obtainability is essential for optimal performance and endurance during sporting events. This book collates articles that either describe original research, or review the scientific literature on the topic of carbohydrate metabolism in health and disease. .

Nutrigenetics

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ISBN: 9783038429951 9783038429968 Year: Pages: X, 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 11:45:06
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Precision Medicine, understood as “the emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person” is currently one of the most talked about themes in biomedicine and great efforts are being made internationally to turn this concept into a reality. As the concept of Precision Medicine spreads, so too does that of “Precision Nutrition”, which would have to take individual variability into account when recommending personalized diets.Although huge progress has been made over recent years in research into the genotype in inter-individual responses to diet, proving that this heterogeneity does indeed exist, we still do not have top level scientific evidence to make the eagerly-awaited personalized dietary recommendations, either from the prevention or treatment of different diseases point of view.It is, therefore, essential to gather more information from studies which, from the nutrigenetic point of view, analyze gene–diet interactions in the different intermediate and final phenotypes of diseases. The ideal situation would be to have results available from randomized and controlled clinical trials. Results on gene–diet interactions obtained from large cohorts, and other types of studies with replication in independent samples, are also of great importance. Similarly, if nutrigenetic findings are accompanied by more mechanistic evidence, integrating other omics, this would be of particular interest. Lastly, another topic of interest is to share strategies for implementing genome-based nutritional interventions.Therefore, this Special Issue of Nutrients, “Nutrigenetics”, will focus on providing evidence of the inter-individual genetic effects of diet in determining diseases phenotypes. We are looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts on these topics. Experimental papers, meta-analyses, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038973546 9783038973553 Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-355-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 11:11:39
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Diet and nutrition are key tools in promoting health and reducing the comorbidities of chronic diseases. There are thousands of biomolecules in fruits, vegetables, wild and medicinal plants, other land and marine organisms, which can exert functional and health-promoting effects through bioactivity beyond nutrition. From the enormous amount of knowledge generated from different natural bioactive ingredients present in foods, we are aiming to bring together experts working in different fields of food, nutrition, and health, in order to work on this Special Issue, with a comprehensive collection of papers to gain insight into the most promising bioactive compounds in different foods, to improve the preservation of bioactivity during the food processing chain, and to provide scientific evidence of the efficacy of key bioactives in foods in preventing disease and improving health and wellbeing.

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