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Accessing Conceptual Representations for Speaking

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450114 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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For speaking, words in the lexicon are somehow activated from conceptual representations but we know surprisingly little about how this works precisely. Which of the attributes of the concept DOG (e.g. BARKS, IS WALKED WITH A LEASH, CARNIVORE, ANIMATE) have to be activated in a given situation to be able to select the word ‘dog’? Are there things we know about dogs that are always activated for naming and others that are only activated in certain contexts or even never? To date, investigations on lexical access in speaking have largely focused on the effects of distractor nouns on the naming latency of a target noun. We have learned that distractors from the same semantic category (e.g. ‘cat’) hinder naming, but associatively related distractors (‘leash’) may facilitate or hinder naming. However, associatively related words can have all kinds of semantic relationships to a target word, and, with few exceptions, the effects of specific semantic relationships other than membership in the same category as the target concept have not been systematically investigated. This special issue aims at moving forward towards a more detailed account of how precisely conceptual information is used to access the lexicon in speaking and what corresponding format of conceptual representations needs to be assumed.

Yeast Biotechnology 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038974314 / 9783038974321 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-432-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-10 10:41:31
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Yeasts are truly fascinating microorganisms. Due to their diverse and dynamic activities, they have been used for the production of many interesting products, such as beer, wine, bread, biofuels, and biopharmaceuticals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewers’ or bakers’ yeast) is the yeast species that is surely the most exploited by humans. Saccharomyces is a top-choice organism for industrial applications, although its use for producing beer dates back to at least the 6th millennium BC. Bakers’ yeast has been a cornerstone of modern biotechnology, enabling the development of efficient production processes. Today, diverse yeast species are explored for industrial applications. This Special Issue “Yeast Biotechnology 2.0” is a continuation of the first Special Issue, “Yeast Biotechnology” (https://www.mdpi.com/books/pdfview/book/324). It compiles the current state-of-the-art of research and technology in the area of “yeast biotechnology” and highlights prominent current research directions in the fields of yeast synthetic biology and strain engineering, new developments in efficient biomolecule production, fermented beverages (beer, wine, and honey fermentation), and yeast nanobiotechnology.]

New forms of collaborative innovation and production on the internet - an interdisciplinary perspective

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783863950200 Year: Pages: 199 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Social Sciences --- Information theory
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The Internet has enabled new forms of large-scale collaboration. Voluntary contributions by large numbers of users and co-producers lead to new forms of production and innovation, as seen in Wikipedia, open source software development, in social networks or on user-generated content platforms as well as in many firm-driven Web 2.0 services. Large-scale collaboration on the Internet is an intriguing phenomenon for scholarly debate because it challenges well established insights into the governance of economic action, the sources of innovation, the possibilities of collective action and the social, legal and technical preconditions for successful collaboration. Although contributions to the debate from various disciplines and fine-grained empirical studies already exist, there still is a lack of an interdisciplinary approach.

The cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197750 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-774-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Keywords

Speech --- Perception --- production --- TMS --- fMRI --- EEG --- MEG --- behavioural

Sustainable Manufacturing: Challenges, Solutions and Implementation Perspectives

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Sustainable Production, Life Cycle Engineering and Management ISSN: 2194-0541 ISBN: 9783319485133 9783319485140 Year: Pages: 283 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Biotechnology --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-13 13:22:51
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This edited volume presents the research results of the Collaborative Research Center 1026 “Sustainable manufacturing - shaping global value creation”. The book aims at providing a reference guide of sustainable manufacturing for researchers, describing methodologies for development of sustainable manufacturing solutions. The volume is structured in four chapters covering the following topics: sustainable manufacturing technology, sustainable product development, sustainable value creation networks and systematic change towards sustainable manufacturing. The target audience comprises both researchers and practitioners in the field of sustainable manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Collaborative Production in the Creative Industries

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ISBN: 9781911534280 9781911534297 9781911534303 9781911534310 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.16997/book4 Language: English
Publisher: University of Westminster Press
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Information theory --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 11:01:47
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"In recent years research into creative labour and cultural work has usually addressed the politics of production in these fields, but the sociotechnical and aesthetic dimensions of collaborative creative work have been somewhat overlooked. This book aims to address this gap. Through case studies that range from TV showrunning to independent publishing, from the film industry to social media platforms such as Tumblr and Wattpad, this collection develops a critical understanding of the integral role collaboration plays in contemporary media and culture. It draws attention to diverse kinds of creative collaboration afforded via the intermediation of digital platforms and networked publics. It considers how these are incorporated into emergent market paradigms and investigates the complicated forms of subjectivity that develop as a consequence. But it also acknowledges historical continuities, not least in terms of the continued exploitation of ‘support personnel’ and of resulting artistic conflicts but also of alternative models that resist the precarious nature of contemporary cultural work.&#xD;Finally, this volume attempts to situate creative collaboration in broader social and economic contexts, where the experience and outcomes of such work have proved more problematic than the rich potential of their promise would lead us to expect.&#xD;&#xD;"

"Production Ergonomics

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ISBN: 9781911529125 9781911529132 9781911529149 9781911529156 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.5334/bbe Language: English
Publisher: Ubiquity Press
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-11 11:02:03
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"Production ergonomics – the science and practice of designing industrial workplaces to optimize human well-being and system performance – is a complex challenge for a designer. Humans are a valuable and flexible resource in any system of creation, and as long as they stay healthy, alert and motivated, they perform well and also become more competent over time, which increases their value as a resource. However, if a system designer is not mindful or aware of the many threats to health and system performance that may emerge, the end result may include inefficiency, productivity losses, low working morale, injuries and sick-leave. To help budding system designers and production engineers tackle these design challenges holistically, this book offers a multi-faceted orientation in the prerequisites for healthy and effective human work. We will cover physical, cognitive and organizational aspects of ergonomics, and provide both the individual human perspective and that of groups and populations, ending up with a look at global challenges that require workplaces to become more socially and economically sustainable. This book is written to give you a warm welcome to the subject, and to provide a solid foundation for improving industrial workplaces to attract and retain healthy and productive staff in the long run."

Jewish Manuscript Cultures. New Perspectives

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Book Series: Studies in Manuscript Cultures ISSN: 2365-970X ISBN: 9783110546422 9783110546545 Year: Volume: 13 Pages: x, 484 DOI: 10.1515/9783110546422 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 17:50:17
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Hebrew manuscripts are considered to be invaluable documents and artefacts of Jewish culture and history. Research on Hebrew manuscript culture is progressing rapidly and therefore its topics, methods and questions need to be enunciated and reflected upon.The case studies assembled in this volume explore various fields of research on Hebrew manuscripts. They show paradigmatically the current developments concerning codicology and palaeography, book forms like the scroll and codex, scribes and their writing material, patrons, collectors and censors, manuscript and book collections, illuminations and fragments, and, last but not least, new methods of material analysis applied to manuscripts.The principal focus of this volume is the material and intellectual history of Hebrew book cultures from antiquity to the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, its intention being to heighten and sharpen the reader’s understanding of Jewish social and cultural history in general.

Gut Health: The New Paradigm in Animal Production?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450299 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-029-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Gut health and specifically the gut microbiome-host interaction is currently a major research topic across the life sciences. In the case of animal sciences research into animal production and health, the gut has been a continuous area of interest. Production parameters such as growth and feed efficiency are entirely dependent on optimum gut health. In addition, the gut is a major immune organ and one of the first lines of defense in animal disease. Recent changes in animal production management and feed regulations, both regulatory and consumer driven, have placed added emphasis on finding ways to optimize gut health in novel and effective ways. In this volume we bring together original research and review articles covering three major categories of gut health and animal production: the gut microbiome, mucosal immunology, and feed-based interventions. Included within these categories is a broad range of scientific expertise and experimental approaches that span food animal production. Our goal in bringing together the articles on this research topic is to survey the current knowledge on gut health in animal production. The following 15 articles include knowledge and perspectives from researchers from multiple countries and research perspectives, all with the central goal of improving animal health and production.

The Practice of Sheep Veterinary Medicine

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ISBN: 9781925261783 Year: Pages: 614 DOI: 10.20851/sheep-medicine Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:04
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This book is intended to be a reference text for veterinarians who provide clinical services to sheep producers. It is directed first and foremost at Australian sheep-raising systems, but the approaches described herein will have wide application in all countries where sheep are raised under extensive grazing conditions. Most of the important conditions of sheep in Australia are relatively straightforward to diagnose, but the establishment of effective and economically sound control strategies is often the most difficult part of health management, particularly for those who are less familiar with sheep production systems. With six initial chapters focusing on providing readers with a basic understanding of the business and science underpinning sheep production, this book focuses its remaining chapters on reproduction and disease conditions, ordered largely on a systems basis. The book provides details about the way disease processes develop and manifest in sheep flocks, with numerous references for those who wish to read further. Australian sheep production is a profitable and fulfilling agricultural pursuit for a large number of farm owners, and this book is intended to assist those who work in the industry to add to the profitability and efficiency of sheep production systems, the quality of sheep products and the welfare of the sheep in those systems.&#xD;

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