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The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451180 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-118-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Despite the centrality of rationality to our identity as a species (let alone the scientific endeavour), and the fact that it has been studied for several millennia, the present state of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning remains highly fragmented. For example, a recent review concluded that none of the extant (12!) theories provide an adequate account (Khemlani & Johnson- Laird, 2011), while other authors argue that we are on the brink of a paradigm change, where the old binary logic framework will be washed away and replaced by more modern (and correct) probabilistic and Bayesian approaches (see for example Elqayam & Over, 2012; Oaksford & Chater, 2009; Over, 2009). Over the past 15 years neuroscience brain imaging techniques and patient studies have been used to map out the functional neuroanatomy of reasoning processes. The aim of this research topic is to discuss whether this line of research has facilitated, hindered, or has been largely irrelevant for understanding of reasoning processes. The answer is neither obvious nor uncontroversial. We would like to engage both the cognitive and the neuroscience community in this discussion. Some of the questions of interest are: How have the data generated by the patient and neuroimaging studies: • influenced our thinking about modularity of deductive reasoning • impacted the debate between mental logic theory, mental model theory and the dual mechanism accounts • affected our thinking about dual mechanism theories • informed discussion of the relationship between induction and deduction • illuminated the relationship between language, visual spatial processing and reasoning • affected our thinking about the unity of deductive reasoning processes Have any of the cognitive theories of reasoning helped us explain deficits in certain patient populations? Do certain theories do a better job of this than others? Is there any value to localizing cognitive processes and identifying dissociations (for reasoning and other cognitive processes)? What challenges have neuroimaging data raised for cognitive theories of reasoning? How can cognitive theory inform interpretation of patient data or neuroimaging data? How can patient data or neuroimaging data best inform cognitive theory? This list of questions is not exhaustive. Manuscripts addressing other related questions are welcome. We are interested in hearing from skeptics, agnostics and believers, and welcome original research contributions as well as reviews, methods, hypothesis & theory papers that contribute to the discussion of the current state of our knowledge of how neuroscience is (or is not) helping us to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying logical reasoning processes.

Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet

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ISBN: 9783038427896 9783038427902 Year: Pages: VIII, 238 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 13:14:17
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The issues facing humanity have become increasingly complex due to the fact they are embedded in a global web of ecological, economic, social, cultural and political processes that are dynamically interlinked. The capacity to conceptualise and redesign solutions, in systems and sustainability terms, will increasingly be what society and employers expect. This “expectation” is globally one of the biggest challenges for education. This Special Issue highlights key developments in the area of systems education and how some of the many challenges are currently being addressed. The 15 articles published fall into five groups: how to design learning systems for systems thinking and sustainability education; insights from the various systems education programs available internationally; different approaches to teaching systems thinking and sustainability; how systems education can be tailored to broaden systems education beyond universities; and possible future pathways for systems education for a sustainable planet. The range and magnitude of the contributions to this book illustrate the diversity of systems education practices and programs (learning systems) in the global systems community, and the relevance of systems thinking and practice to examining issues crucial to the long-term sustainability of the planet.

The Wind ~ An Unruly Living

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ISBN: 9781947447950 9781947447967 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0237.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:03
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A process begun in Pisa, Italy in April of 2016 during a workshop on political theory in the Anthropocene, The Wind ~ An Unruly Living is a philosophical exercise (askêsis, translated, following Ignatius of Loyola, as “spiritual exercise”). In his exercise, Bendik-Keymer throws to the void: the ideology of self-ownership from a society of possession. By using the Stoic kanôn, the rule of living by phûsis, he follows an element. Unhappily for the Stoic and happily for us, the wind is unruly. A swerve of currents through a social fabric, it’s full of holes, all holely. Stretch and stitch as you want, it might settle more shapely tattered into light, but it will never become whole. The wind’s only holesome.

The Psychology of Human Thought

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ISBN: 9783947732333 9783947732340 9783947732357 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.17885/heiup.470 Language: English
Publisher: Heidelberg University Publishing (heiUP)
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-14 11:21:03
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The “Psychology of Human Thought” is an “open access” collection of peer-reviewed chapters from all areas of higher cognitive processes. The book is intended to be used as a textbook in courses on higher process, complex cognition, human thought, and related courses. Chapters include concept acquisition, knowledge representation, inductive and deductive reasoning, problem solving, metacognition, language, expertise, intelligence, creativity, wisdom, development of thought, affect and thought, and sections about history and about methods. The chapters are written by distinguished scholarly experts in their respective fields, coming from such diverse regions as North America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Norway, Israel, and Australia. The level of the chapters is addressed to advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students.

Pedagogical Psychology: Beyond the 21st Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195626 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-562-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Frontiers in Psychology is introducing a new research topic, Pedagogical Psychology: Beyond the 21st Century, which will be released as an online journal issue in summer 2014. The purpose of Beyond the 21st Century will be to publish goal- oriented articles leading to improvement of teaching and learning at all levels of psychology education. Until perhaps 20 years ago, educational approaches to teaching were largely informed by a “Stand and Deliver” pedagogical attitude. The psychology of this approach has often invested unrealistic and unrealizable responsibilities in both teachers and students. With the emergence of electronic data sharing (e.g., the Internet) and global cooperation/competition, newer approaches to teaching have begun to supplement and sometimes replace the older model of teaching. These newer approaches have simultaneously taken advantage of technological advances, global changes, and an evolving understanding of successful student-mentor relationships. As the pedagogical models driven by these changes evolve into the 22nd century and beyond, what seems groundbreaking today will, in hindsight, be seen as hidebound. Thus, the major goal of Beyond the 21st Century will be to publish manuscripts which imaginatively, but realistically anticipate future trends in teaching undergraduate psychology.

Inner Experiences: Theory, Measurement, Frequency, Content, and Functions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197712 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-771-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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One fundamental topic of scientific inquiry in psychology is the study of what William James called the 'stream of consciousness', our ongoing experience of the world and ourselves from within—our inner experiences. These internal states (aka "stimulus-independent thoughts") include inner speech, mental imagery, feelings, sensory awareness, internally produced sounds or music, unsymbolized thinking, and mentalizing (thinking about others' mental states). They may occur automatically during mind-wandering (daydreaming) and resting-state episodes, and may focus on one's past, present, or future ("mental time travel" - e.g., autonoetic consciousness). Inner experiences also may take the form of intrusive or ruminative thoughts. The types, characteristics, frequency, content, and functions of inner experiences have been studied using a variety of traditional methods, among which questionnaires, thought listing procedures (i.e., open-ended self-reports), thinking aloud techniques, and daily dairies. Another approach, articulatory suppression, consists in blocking participants' use of verbal thinking while completing a given task; deficits indicate that inner speech plays a causal role in normal task completion. Various thought sampling approaches have also been developed in an effort to gather more ecologically valid data. Previous thought sampling studies have relied on beepers that signal participants to report aspects of their inner experiences at random intervals. More recent studies are exploiting smartphone technology to easily and reliably probe randomly occurring inner experiences in large samples of participants. These various measures have allowed researchers to learn some fundamental facts about inner experiences. To illustrate, it is becoming increasingly clear that prospection (future-oriented thinking) greatly depends on access to autobiographical memory (past-oriented thinking), where recollection of past scenes is used as a template to formulate plausible future scenarios. The main goal of the present Research Topic was to offer a scientific platform for the dissemination of current high-quality research pertaining to inner experiences. Although data on all forms of inner experiences were welcome, reports on recent advances in inner speech research were particularly encouraged. Here are some examples of topics of interest: (1) description and validation of new scales, inventories, questionnaires measuring any form of inner experience; (2) novel uses or improvements of existing measures of inner experiences; (3) development of new smartphone technology facilitating or broadening the use of cell phones to sample inner experiences; (4) frequency, content, and functions of various inner experience; (5) correlations between personality or cognitive variables and any aspects of inner experiences; (6) philosophical or theoretical considerations pertaining to inner experiences; and (7) inner experience changes with age.

Pour une généalogie critique de la Francophonie

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Book Series: Stockholm Studies in Romance Languages ISBN: 9789176350805 9789176350836 9789176350812 9789176350829 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.16993/bau Language: French
Publisher: Stockholm University Press
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:05
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"Christophe Premat is a senior lecturer in cultural studies in the Department of Romance Studies and Classics at Stockholm University and Co-Editor-In-Chief for the Nordic Journal of Francophone Studies, https://franorfon.org.&#xD;The book studies the genesis of the institutions of the Francophonie at the time of independence of African countries in the sixties. Based on geopolitical analysis and postcolonial theories, the author reassesses the position of France which officially distanced itself from this multilateral organization. France controlled more and more the organization in the 1980s when the organization increased its political expression on international issues. By confronting the spirit of the structures with the actors of the Francophonie, the work reflects on the challenges and the difficulty to define the specific fields of action of this organization. Furthermore, the book proposes a critical analysis of the francophone discourse based on the ideology that makes the French language an instrument containing values and norms."&#xD;

Inter-healthcare Professions Collaboration: Educational and Practical Aspects and New Developments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199976 Year: Pages: 28 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-997-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Settings, such as patient-centered medical homes, can serve as ideal places to promote interprofessional collaboration among healthcare providers (Fjortoft et al., 2016). Furthermore, work together by teams of interprofessional healthcare students (Van Winkle, 2015) and even practitioners (Stringer et al., 2013) can help to foster interdisciplinary collaboration. This result occurs, in part, by mitigating negative biases toward other healthcare professions (Stringer et al., 2013; Van Winkle 2016). Such changes undoubtedly require increased empathy for other professions and patients themselves (Tamayo et al., 2016). Nevertheless, there is still much work to be done to foster efforts to promote interprofessional collaboration (Wang and Zorek, 2016). This work should begin with undergraduate education and continue throughout the careers of all healthcare professionals.

Globalisierung und Integrales Bewusstsein

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ISBN: 9783907260456 Year: Pages: 207 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437171 Language: German
Publisher: Novalis Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3977
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:09
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Heinrich Leopold´s study of the relationship between globalisation and integral thinking forges a link between Jean Gebser´s structural model of intellectual thought and current arenas of globalisation. It takes a carefully chosen approach to analysing various forms of globalisation from the point of view of social and individual consicousness. Jean Gebser´s philosophy, which owes much to a world view informed by far eastern philosophy, describes the history of human pereption in terms of a sequence of qualitatively different structures and demonstrates the emergence of a new structure of perception, which he describes as integral. This approach enables Heinrich Leopold to take into account the relevant in-depth analyses of globalisation while at the same time highlightning the divergent attitudes of those who welcome it as well as of those who condemn it, and offering of both. &#xD;&#xD;Irrespective of the extent to which globalisation has taken hold and no matter how much the western world have benefited from its undeniable technical, economic and communicative advantages, it is nevertheless a phenomenon tinged with the prospect of unpredictable danger and impending catastrophe. Globalisation is often seen as a powerful means of dividing the world into rich and poor. At present, we lack necessary perceptual tools by which to grasp the fundamental impact of globalisation on our way of life - let alone the tools by which to deal with it.&#xD;&#xD;This study goes one step further in that, very much in the spirit of Gebser´s concept of integration, it tracks down new approaches within emerging developments and defines them more precisely in terms of human perception, by way of selected examples. In other words, the study examines the applicability and usefulness of Jean Gebser´s structural models. The result is a firm basis on which to build a deeper understanding of the overall phenomenon of globalisation. This understanding can give rise to a new political mode of action that overcomes the prevailing sense of impotence and helplessness.&#xD;&#xD;Heinrich Leopold´s treatise is based on the notion that Kant´s ideal of eternal peace and Aurobindo´s concept of human unity have to be reassessed and redefined in this age of globalisation. In this context, Jean Gebser´s structural model and his descriptions of the integral provide an opportunity for us, in our time, to undertake a sober appraisal of the circumstances while at the same time gainging new insights into the discourse on globalisation.&#xD;

Teaching Methods in Science Subjects Promoting Sustainability

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ISBN: 9783038426509 9783038426516 Year: Pages: VIII, 160 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:03:40
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In this book, conventional and new methods through which sustainability can be promoted in mathematics and science subjects are described and discussed. The aim of the book is to support teachers and teacher educators in their work, and to create a multi-sided view on sustainability, and on education for sustainable development. Curriculums and teaching approaches for the implementation of sustainability in schools and universities, especially in teacher education, are discussed. The pedagocical studies presented give useful examples of how sustainability can be included in mathematics, physics and biology education. The described teaching methods are discussed also in relation to students' competence and learning outcomes. In addition, valuable ideas are presented for the development of curriculums and teaching practices in higher education and schools. The book is suited for all teachers and researchers who are interested in sustainability and sustainable development, and want to develop their teaching in higher education and schools.

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