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Anaerobic Digestion

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456796 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-679-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a naturally-occurring biological process in soils, sediments, ruminants, and several other anoxic environments, that cycles carbon and other nutrients, and converts organic matter into a methane-rich gas. As a biotechnology, AD is now well-established for the treatment of the organic fraction of various waste materials, including wastewaters, but is also increasingly applied for an expanding range of organic feedstocks suitable for biological conversion to biogas. AD applications are classified in various ways, including on the basis of bioreactor design; and operating parameters, such as retention time, temperature, pH, total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) contents, and biodegradability of substrates. AD is an attractive bioenergy and waste / wastewater treatment technology. The advantages of AD for waste treatment include: production of a useable fuel (biogas/methane); possibility of high organic loading; reduced carbon footprint; and suitability for integration into a wide variety of process configurations and scales. Specifically, two important, and developing, applications exemplify the potential of AD technologies: (1) the integration of AD as the basis of the core technologies underpinning municipal wastewater, and sewage, treatment, to displace less sustainable, and more energy-intensive, aerobic biological treatment systems in urban water infrastructures; and (2) technical innovations for higher-rate conversions of high-solids wastestreams, and feedstocks, for the production of energy carriers (i.e. methane-biogas, but possibly also biohydrogen) and other industrially-relevant intermediates, such as organic acids.Internationally, the research effort to maximize AD biogas yield has increased ten-fold over the past decade. Depending on the feedstocks, bioreactor design and process parameters, fundamental and applied knowledge are still required to improve conversion rates and biogas yields. This Research Topic cover aspects related to AD processes, such as the effect of feedstock composition, as well as the effect of feedstock pre-treatment, bioreactor design and operating modes, on process efficiency; microbial community dynamics and systems biology; influence of macro- and micro-nutrient concentrations and availability; process control; upgrading and calibration of anaerobic digestion models (e.g. ADM1) considering the biochemical routes as well as the hydrodynamics in such ecosystems; and novel approaches to process monitoring, such as the development, and application, of novel, and rapid diagnostic assays, including those based on molecular microbiology. Detailed full-scale application studies were also particularly welcomed.

Sata vuotta vesihuoltoa Suomessa 1917-2017

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789520305475 Year: Pages: 288 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Tampere University Press
Subject: Environmental Technology --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 11:01:49
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100 years of water supply and sanitation in Finland This book is written by Petri S. Juuti, Tapio S.Katko & Riikka P. Rajala.&#xD;Finland is known as a land of thousands of lakes. Yet, there are regions in Finland where lakes are very few and the lack of fresh water is an ordinary problem. Finland is quite unique in Fennoscandia as to its water resources. The country has some 56 000 lakes with a minimum area of one hectare and all together 200000 lakes. Ground water occurs in alluvial eskers formed during ice ages, the last of which ended some 10 000 years ago. Nowadays some 60 per cent of the people use natural or artificially recharged ground water. However, areas lower than 50–60 metres above sea level have problems with water quality due to geological reasons. In such areas bigger cities use surface water for their water supply or acquire their raw water from sources further away. The book shows us how water supply and sanitation have developed in Finland during years of political independence starting from the year 1917.

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038971016 9783038971023 Year: Pages: 226 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-27 15:22:12
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This edited volume is a collection of 12 publications from esteemed research groups around the globe. The articles belong to the following broad categories: biological treatment process parameters, sludge management and disinfection, removal of trace organic contaminants, removal of heavy metals, and synthesis and fouling control of membranes for wastewater treatment.

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

How to Study Art Worlds

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ISBN: 9789089641526 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.5117/9789089641526 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: History of arts --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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This necessary and thought-provoking study brings together the organisational side of the world of the arts and the understanding of the many functions art fulfi lls in our culture. The author sets out to establish how the organisation of art worlds serves the functioning of the arts in society. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which presents a comparative study of approaches to the art world as practiced by Dickie, Becker, Bourdieu, Heinich, and Luhmann, among others. The second part focuses on the philosphical debates concerning 'aesthetic experience'. Besides Kant, scholars such as Gadamer, Foster, Shustermann, Schaeffer and Carroll come to the fore. In the third part, the author traces the consequences of these theoretical approaches for the organization of art world practices.

The Family in Question

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Book Series: IMISCoe Research ISBN: 9789053568699 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.5117/9789053568699 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Sociology --- History --- Migration --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The family lives of immigrants and ethnic minority populations have become central to arguments about the right and wrong ways of living in multicultural societies. While the characteristic cultural practices of such families have long been scrutinized by the media and policy makers, these groups themselves are beginning to reflect on how to manage their family relationships. Exploring case studies from Austria, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Australia, The Family in Question explores how those in public policy often dangerously reflect the popular imagination, rather than recognizing the complex changes taking place within the global immigrant community.

Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do we Stand?

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ISBN: 9781780405421 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_578131 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 11:01:14
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"The Third African Sanitation and Hygiene Conference was held in Kigali, Rwanda in July 2011. It was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, and the African Minister s Council on Water. The meeting attracted extraordinary interest: over 1000 people registered and nearly 900 people attended from a total of 67 countries, including representatives of 42 African countries. The content of AfricaSan 3 was aligned with the needs of countries as defined in country preparation meetings which took place in advance. AfricaSan 3 looked to address the country needs and to commitments and country action planning. Different groups (ministers, civil society, local government, utilities, and donors) committed to actions to support the goals of AfricaSan. The goal of the AfricaSan process is to support countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal, (MDG) for sanitation and hygiene. &#xD;&#xD;Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand? takes stock of progress made by African countries through the AfricaSan process since 2008 and the progress needed to meet the MDG on sanitation by 2015 and beyond. This book addresses priorities which have been identified by African countries as the key elements which need to be addressed in order to accelerate progress. &#xD;&#xD;-- Reviews progress on implementing the eThekwini Declaration to meet the MDG for sanitation and progress generally in Africa. It analyses what is needed to accelerate the rate of access to sanitation in Africa. &#xD;-- Shares advances in the evidence base on sanitation and hygiene in Africa to be able to assist decision-makers to overcome key blockages in implementing large-scale sanitation and hygiene programs. &#xD;-- Raises the profile of sanitation and hygiene as a determinant of sustainable development in order to strengthen leadership and advocacy for sustained sanitation and behavior changes. &#xD;&#xD;This book is essential reading for government staff from Ministries responsible for sanitation, sector stakeholders working in NGOs, CSOs and agencies with a focus on sanitation and hygiene and water and sanitation specialists. It is also suitable for Masters courses in water and sanitation and for researchers and the donor community."

Attachment Assessment in treatments, prevention and intervention programs

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195237 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-523-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Attachment theory, assessment and research offers a broad, far-reaching view of human functioning, and it can enrich a psychologist's understanding of subjects and their relational adjustment, both in clinical and non-clinical settings. Ongoing research in attachment has led to a number of individual treatments and prevention and intervention programs. The assessment of an individual's attachment organization, can play a crucial role in explaining and previewing the unfolding treatment, the relational adjustments or concerns, and the psychological well-being. We hope to receive empirical papers that give evidence for the usefulness of attachment assessment in both clinical (e.g., patients with Eating Disorder; or Axis-II; psychotherapy patients…) or not clinical population (e.g. Adoptive and/or foster families or couples, Mother-infant assessment in prevention field…). These papers should include methodological issues and information about the participants, the methods used to assess attachment, the process of scorer training and the availability of the manual used to obtain inter-scorer reliability. Case studies may be of interest to the extent that they demonstrate the value of a systematic approach to attachment material. A range of theoretical perspectives is welcome as well presentation of new emergent tools on attachment. Because Frontiers in Psychology is an international journal, each empirical paper should comment on the international implications of the findings and discuss its cross-cultural use. Such comments may include, for example, its linguistic specificity, its robustness in translation, and the cross-cultural generalizability of the constructs and behaviors of the measure and its usual correlates. Cross-cultural generalizability is not, however, a requirement.

Keywords

Attachment --- Parenting --- Trauma --- Anorexia --- Addiction --- Obesity --- autism --- Adoption --- Treatment

Immunoglobulin therapy in the 21st century: the dark side of the moon

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197033 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-703-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the early decades since the introduction in the early '80s of immunoglobulin therapy many studies tried to identify which clinical indications might benefit from the therapy, which treatment’s schedules are effective and safe. It is universally accepted that immunoglobulin therapy is a life-saving treatment in patients with PID. The rise of new indications for further different clinical conditions resulted in a steady increase in demand for immunoglobulins. Currently the consumption of immunoglobulin for PID represents a small fraction of the market. In the recent past we have been observing:1) An increase in the demand for plasma and in the consequent need to increase the number of donors;2) Changes in methods to improve IgG recovery and to increase productivity as a response to growing clinical demand;3) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatments with higher concentration;4) Changes in the timing of administration with an increase in the rate of infusion;5) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatment administered subcutaneously mainly confined initially to patients with PID and later extended to other clinical indications which often require higher volumes of infusion. Doctors following patients with PID were initially alarmed only to a possible risk of shortage. More relevant and less discussed appear the possible consequences of:1) the risk of an improper transfer of information on treatments from a clinical indication to another. In particular, the idea of a mere replacement function in patients with PID might possibly be borrowed from the model of other clinical conditions requiring a replacement such as haemophilia. In PID, immunoglobulin treatment instead is obviously replacing a missing feature. However, other immune alterations are responsible for the large number of PID-associated diseases including inflammatory manifestations and tumors, common causes of morbidity and mortality. The immunomodulatory effects of immunoglobulin administered at replacement dosages on multiple cells and immune system functions are still largely to be checked in in vitro studies and in vivo.2) the changes in the immunoglobulin production and schedules of administration. These should have been assessed in studies of drug surveillance, necessary in order to evaluate on large numbers of what it is initially reported on patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical trials, usually in the absence of most of the main disease-associated clinical conditions affecting pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. Severe side effects are now more frequently reported. This requires surveillance studies in order to verify the tolerability. Nowadays, personalized health research presents methodologic challenges, since emphasis is placed on the individual response rather than on the population. Even within a universally accepted indication, such as in PID, the identification of prognostic markers should guide the therapeutic intervention.3) the risk of a decrease in the surveillance and monitoring of PID-associated clinical conditions. In fact, self- administration of immunoglobulins administered subcutaneously increased the independence of a number of patients. On the other hand, it led to the reduction in the number of contacts between specialized centers and patients who often require a close monitoring of disease-associated conditions. A wide debate between experts is necessary to afford the new challenge on immunoglobulin usage.

Treatment Wetlands

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Biological Wastewater Treatment Series ISBN: 9781780408774 9781780408767 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.2166/9781780408774 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-30 11:01:54
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Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

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