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Nitrification and Denitrification

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ISBN: 9789535132998 9789535133001 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.5772/65170 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Nitrification and denitrification are essential processes for aquatic ecological system and vital for human health. While ammonia is applied for disinfection together with chlorine to produce chloramine, excessive ammonia may cause nitrification and bacteria growth in water transmission pipeline. Since excessive discharge may cause eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic system, nitrate is regulated for wastewater discharge in sensitive areas. Further, nitrate needs to be monitored and controlled in drinking water treatment to protect against methemoglobinemia in bottle-fed infants.

Application of Titanium Dioxide

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ISBN: 9789535134299 9789535134305 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70121 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Titanium dioxide is mainly used as a pigment and photocatalyst. It is possible to find it in food, cosmetics, building materials, electric devices, and others. This book contains chapters about application of titanium dioxide in different branches of economy such as the agriculture, the food industry, the medicine, the cosmetics, the water treatment technologies, and the semiconductors.

Titanium Dioxide

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ISBN: 9789535134138 9789535134145 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.5772/66559 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
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Titanium dioxide is mainly used as a pigment and photocatalyst. It is possible to find it in food, cosmetics, building materials, electric devices, and others. This book contains chapters about characteristics of anatase and rutile crystallographic structure of titanium dioxide and the use of theoretical calculation for photoactivity determination.

Rare Earth Element

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ISBN: 9789535134015 9789535134022 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/65576 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
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Rare earth elements have significant physical and chemical properties, which have been made indispensable in many magnetic, electronic, and optical applications. For instance, rare earth magnets have high magnetic intensity that can be retained at high temperatures, making them ideal for aerospace applications. Moreover, rare earth elements allow to fabricate faster, smaller, and lighter devices such as cell phones and hard drives. They are also important for in-ear headphones, microphones, loudspeakers, optical fibers, smartphones, and tablet computers. All these technological possibilities have made sure that the rare earth elements are part of the daily life. Therefore, this book has a main objective to let the readers know useful information about the rare earth elements that possibly allow development of the researches in different fields of science where the rare earth elements are used.

Recent Progress in Soldering Materials

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ISBN: 9789535136439 9789535136446 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/66554 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
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This book is about solders and their composition and focuses on material characterizations and the methods used to make alloys and determine their structures, physical properties and applications. Physical properties and the factors that control them and theoretical verification are the main contents of this book. Corrosion of solders is included in the coverage of the properties related to solder composition and mechanical properties.

Cobalt

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ISBN: 9789535136675 9789535136682 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68255 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
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Cobalt is a brittle, hard, silver-grey transition metal with high melting point, hard-wearing at elevated temperatures, good corrosion resistance and improved chemical, magnetic and mechanical properties. This book aims to provide in-depth study and analyses of various synthesis and processing techniques and characterization of cobalt that can lead to its increased applications in recent technology. This book presents deep understanding of the new techniques from basic to the advance level for scientists and engineers. The chapters cover all major aspects about cobalt and its application in material characterization with special emphasis on both theoretical and experimental aspects. This book addresses engineering professionals, students and materials scientists.

Nonmagnetic and Magnetic Quantum Dots

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ISBN: 9789535139591 9789535139607 9789535140344 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68207 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
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The book entitled Nonmagnetic and Magnetic Quantum Dots is divided into two sections. In Section 1, the chapters are related to nonmagnetic quantum dots and their applications. More specifically, exact models and numerical methods have been presented to describe the analytical solution of the carrier wave functions, the quantum mechanical aspects of quantum dots, and the comparison of the latter to experimental data. Furthermore, methods to produce quantum dots, synthesis techniques of colloidal quantum dots, and applications on sensors and biology, among others, are included in this section. In Section 2, a few topics of magnetic quantum dots and their applications are presented. The section starts with a theoretical model to describe the magnetization dynamics in magnetic quantum dot array and the description of dilute magnetic semiconducting quantum dots and their applications. Additionally, a few applications of magnetic quantum dots in sensors, biology, and medicine are included in Section 2.

Intermetallic Compounds - Formation and Applications

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ISBN: 9781789231786 9781789231793 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68256 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
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Intermetallic compounds are usually brittle with high melting points. Their properties are often found among ceramic and metallic materials. In most cases, their hot corrosion resistance and simultaneously hardness are important. One of the main applications of intermetallic compounds is for superalloy turbine blades in which they show appropriate high-temperature-related properties. This book collects new developments about intermetallic compounds and their recent usages.

Iron Ores and Iron Oxide Materials

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ISBN: 9781789233209 9781789233216 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69715 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
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This book provides the multidisciplinary reading audience with a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of research and innovations in the relationship between iron ores and iron ore materials. The book covers industrial sectors dealing with exploration and processing of iron ores as well as with advanced applications for iron ore materials and therefore entails a wide range of research fields including geology, exploration, beneficiation, agglomeration, reduction, smelting, and so on, thus encouraging life cycle thinking across the entire production chain. Iron remains the basis of modern civilization, and our sustainable future deeply depends upon our ability to satisfy the growing demand for iron and steel while decoupling hazardous emissions from economic growth. Therefore, environmental sustainability aspects are also broadly addressed. In response to socioeconomic and climatic challenges, the iron ore sector faces, this book delivers a vision for the new opportunities linked to deployment of the best available, innovative and breakthrough technologies as well as to advanced material applications.

Heterojunctions and Nanostructures

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ISBN: 9781789234688 9781789234695 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71162 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The current book entitled Heterojunctions and Nanostructures is divided into two sections. In Section 1, the chapters are related to topological insulators where their theoretical aspects, their current experiments, and their applications are presented. A few presented topics are, among others, the topological phases of matter, band topology of insulators and also of Weyl semimetals, transport properties of 3D topological insulator quantum wires and the influence of disorder, transport properties of quasi-1D (and 2D) topological surface states, quantum coherence, and topological insulator thin-film Hall bar device. In Section 2, the chapters are related to light devices such as laser diodes and their fabrication techniques. This section includes, among others, topics such as semiconductor quantum nanowire laser diodes, solutions of Schrodinger equation in nanostructures, numerical methods, light-to-electricity conversion devices, photoexcited carrier transportation process in quantum wells and quantum dots, growth mode and characterization of heterostructure of large lattice mismatch, and photoionization cross section.

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