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Enzyme-Mediated Stereoselective Synthesis

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ISBN: 9783039219360 / 9783039219377 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-937-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Inorganic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of studies focused on the exploitation of enzyme stereoselectivity for the synthesis of relevant chemicals, such as innovative materials, chiral building blocks, natural products, and flavor and fragrance compounds. Different catalytic approaches are reported. The first study describes a resolution-based process for the stereoselective synthesis of the enantiomeric forms of the flavor compound linaloyl oxide, whereas other enantiomeric enriched aroma compounds were obtained through a novel microbial approach based on solid-state fermentation. Two relevant works exploit the potential of the biocatalyzed reduction reactions. The first of these contributions describes the enantioselective synthesis of ?-nitroalcohols by enzyme-mediated reduction of ?-nitroketones, whereas a second contribution reports the preparation of chiral 1,4-diaryl-1,4-diols through ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of the corresponding diketones. Concerning enantioenriched alcohol derivatives, natural hydroxy fatty acids are prepared by means of the biocatalytic hydration reaction of natural fatty acids using the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Further studies describe the use of modified pullulan polysaccharide for lipase immobilization and the recent advances in synthetic applications of ?-transaminases for the production of chiral amines.

Electromagnetic Technologies for Medical Diagnostics. Fundamental Issues, Clinical Applications and Perspectives

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976769 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-677-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Neonatal Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects

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ISBN: 9783039210480 / 9783039210497 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-049-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are potentially life-threatening malformations that remain a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Failure to diagnose these conditions shortly after birth may result in acute cardiovascular collapse and death. The identification of CCHDs by routine newborn clinical examination is routine in many countries, but consistently misses over a third of cases, and, although antenatal ultrasound screening can be very effective in early diagnosis, the provision and accuracy of ultrasound screening is highly variable. As most CCHDs present with mild cyanosis (hypoxaemia), which is frequently clinically undetectable, pulse oximetry is a rapid, simple, painless method of accurately identifying hypoxaemia, which has gained popularity as a screen for CCHD. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening, devoted to ""Neonatal Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects (CCHDs)"", will consider the evidence for CCHD screening with pulse oximetry, the acceptability and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, the additional non-cardiac conditions which it may also identify, and international experiences of introducing CCHD screening across the globe.

Thin Film Transistor

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ISBN: 9783039215263 / 9783039215270 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-527-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Recently, new wide-band energy gap semiconductors can be grown by ALD, PLD, sputtering, or MOCVD. They have great potential for the fabrication and application to TFTs. Inorganic semiconductors have good stability against environmental degradation over their organic counterparts, whereas organic materials are usually flexible, transparent, and when solution-processed at low temperatures, are prone to degradation when exposed to heat, moisture, and oxygen. For this Special Issue, we invited researchers to submit papers discussing the development of new functional and smart materials, and inorganic as well as organic semiconductor materials, such as ZnO, InZnO, GaO, AlGaO, AnGaO, AlN/GaN, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, perovskite-based materials, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotubes/polymer composites, and 2D materials (e.g., graphene, MoS2) and their potential applications in display drivers, radio frequency identification tags, e-paper, gas, chemical and biosensors, to name but a few.

Nonlinear Dynamics and Entropy of Complex Systems with Hidden and Self-excited Attractors

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038978985 / 9783038978992 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-899-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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In recent years, entropy has been used as a measure of the degree of chaos in dynamical systems. Thus, it is important to study entropy in nonlinear systems. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in the last few years regarding the novel classification of nonlinear dynamical systems including two kinds of attractors: self-excited attractors and hidden attractors. The localization of self-excited attractors by applying a standard computational procedure is straightforward. In systems with hidden attractors, however, a specific computational procedure must be developed, since equilibrium points do not help in the localization of hidden attractors. Some examples of this kind of system are chaotic dynamical systems with no equilibrium points; with only stable equilibria, curves of equilibria, and surfaces of equilibria; and with non-hyperbolic equilibria. There is evidence that hidden attractors play a vital role in various fields ranging from phase-locked loops, oscillators, describing convective fluid motion, drilling systems, information theory, cryptography, and multilevel DC/DC converters. This Special Issue is a collection of the latest scientific trends on the advanced topics of dynamics, entropy, fractional order calculus, and applications in complex systems with self-excited attractors and hidden attractors.

Keywords

new chaotic system --- multiple attractors --- electronic circuit realization --- S-Box algorithm --- chaotic systems --- circuit design --- parameter estimation --- optimization methods --- Gaussian mixture model --- chaotic system --- empirical mode decomposition --- permutation entropy --- image encryption --- hidden attractors --- fixed point --- stability --- nonlinear transport equation --- stochastic (strong) entropy solution --- uniqueness --- existence --- multiscale multivariate entropy --- multistability --- self-reproducing system --- chaos --- hidden attractor --- self-excited attractor --- fractional order --- spectral entropy --- coexistence --- multistability --- chaotic flow --- hidden attractor --- multistable --- entropy --- core entropy --- Thurston’s algorithm --- Hubbard tree --- external rays --- chaos --- Lyapunov exponents --- multiple-valued --- static memory --- strange attractors --- fractional discrete chaos --- entropy --- projective synchronization --- full state hybrid projective synchronization --- generalized synchronization --- inverse full state hybrid projective synchronization --- inverse generalized synchronization --- multichannel supply chain --- service game --- chaos --- entropy --- BOPS --- Hopf bifurcation --- self-excited attractors --- multistability --- sample entropy --- PRNG --- Non-equilibrium four-dimensional chaotic system --- entropy measure --- adaptive approximator-based control --- neural network --- uncertain dynamics --- synchronization --- fractional-order --- complex-variable chaotic system --- unknown complex parameters --- chaotic map --- fixed point --- chaos --- approximate entropy --- implementation --- hidden attractor --- hyperchaotic system --- multistability --- entropy analysis --- hidden attractor --- complex systems --- fractional-order --- entropy --- chaotic maps --- chaos --- spatial dynamics --- Bogdanov Map --- chaos --- laser --- resonator

Synthesis and Applications of New Spin Crossover Compounds

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ISBN: 9783039213610 / 9783039213627 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-362-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The crystal chemistry of spin crossover (SCO) behavior in coordination compounds can potentially be in association with smart materials—promising materials for applications as components of memory devices, displays, sensors and mechanical devices and, especially, actuators, such as artificial muscles. This Special Issue is devoted to various aspects of SCO and related research, comprising 18 interesting original papers on valuable and important SCO topics. Significant and fundamental scientific attention has been focused on the SCO phenomena in a wide research range of fields of fundamental chemical and physical and related sciences, containing the interdisciplinary regions of chemical and physical sciences related to the SCO phenomena. Coordination materials with bistable systems between the LS and the HS states are usually triggered by external stimuli, such as temperature, light, pressure, guest molecule inclusion, soft X-ray, and nuclear decay. Since the first Hofmann-like spin crossover (SCO) behavior in {Fe(py)2[Ni(CN)4]}n (py = pyridine) was demonstrated, this crystal chemistry motif has been frequently used to design Fe(II) SCO materials to enable determination of the correlations between structural features and magnetic properties.

Keywords

spin crossover --- spin transition --- cobalt(II) ion --- paramagnetic ligand --- aminoxyl --- switch --- mosaicity --- spin crossover --- X-ray diffraction --- fatigability --- single crystal --- phase transition --- structural disorder --- spin-crossover --- dinuclear triple helicate --- Fe(II) --- solvent effects --- metal dithiolene complexes --- [Au(dmit)2]?, [Au(dddt)2]? --- ion-pair crystals --- [Fe(III)(3-OMesal2-trien)]+ --- coordination complexes --- crystal structure --- magnetic properties --- magnetic susceptibility --- magnetization --- spin-crossover transition --- Fe(II) complex --- dipyridyl-N-alkylamine ligands --- high spin (HS) --- low spin (LS) --- spin cross-over (SCO) --- magnetic transition --- cobalt oxide --- spin polaron --- impurity effect --- spin-state crossover --- coordination polymer --- supramolecular isomerism --- spin crossover --- crystal engineering --- spin crossover --- X-ray absorption spectroscopy --- soft X-ray induced excited spin state trapping --- high spin --- spin-crossover --- LIESST effect --- hydrogen bonding --- ?-? interactions --- charge-transfer phase transition --- iron mixed-valence complex --- hetero metal complex --- dithiooxalato ligand --- substitution of 3d transition metal ion --- ferromagnetism --- dielectric response --- 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy --- Fe(III) coordination complexes --- hexadentate ligand --- Schiff base --- spin crossover --- UV-Vis spectroscopy --- SQUID --- EPR spectroscopy --- spin-crossover --- optical microscopy --- reaction diffusion --- spin crossover --- Fe(III) complex --- qsal ligand --- thermal hysteresis --- structure phase transition --- counter-anion --- solvate --- lattice energy --- optical conductivity spectrum --- spiral structure --- 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane --- supramolecular coordination polymer --- chiral propeller structure --- atropisomerism --- spin crossover --- iron(II) complexes --- C–H···? interactions --- magnetic properties --- thermochromism --- spin crossover --- linear pentadentate ligand --- iron(II) --- mononuclear --- 1,2,3-triazole --- crystal structure --- magnetic properties --- DFT calculation --- intermolecular interactions --- amorphous --- spin crossover --- Cu(II) complexes --- nitroxides --- phase transitions --- magnetostructural correlations --- iron (II), spin crossover --- X-ray diffraction --- coordination polymers --- n/a

Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury

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ISBN: 9783038976523 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-653-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Organic Chemistry --- Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury that was published in Crystals

Quantum Probability and Randomness

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ISBN: 9783038977148 9783038977155 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-715-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The last few years have been characterized by a tremendous development of quantum information and probability and their applications, including quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum random generators. In spite of the successful development of quantum technology, its foundational basis is still not concrete and contains a few sandy and shaky slices. Quantum random generators are one of the most promising outputs of the recent quantum information revolution. Therefore, it is very important to reconsider the foundational basis of this project, starting with the notion of irreducible quantum randomness. Quantum probabilities present a powerful tool to model uncertainty. Interpretations of quantum probability and foundational meaning of its basic tools, starting with the Born rule, are among the topics which will be covered by this issue. Recently, quantum probability has started to play an important role in a few areas of research outside quantum physics&mdash;in particular, quantum probabilistic treatment of problems of theory of decision making under uncertainty. Such studies are also among the topics of this issue.

Keywords

quantum logic --- groups --- partially defined algebras --- quasigroups --- viable cultures --- quantum information theory --- bit commitment --- protocol --- entropy --- entanglement --- orthogonality --- quantum computation --- Gram–Schmidt process --- quantum probability --- potentiality --- complementarity --- uncertainty relations --- Copenhagen interpretation --- indefiniteness --- indeterminism --- causation --- randomness --- quantum information --- quantum dynamics --- entanglement --- algebra --- causality --- geometry --- probability --- quantum information theory --- realism --- reality --- entropy --- correlations --- qubits --- probability representation --- Bayes’ formula --- quantum entanglement --- three-qubit random states --- entanglement classes --- entanglement polytope --- anisotropic invariants --- quantum random number --- vacuum state --- maximization of quantum conditional min-entropy --- quantum logics --- quantum probability --- holistic semantics --- epistemic operations --- Bell inequalities --- algorithmic complexity --- Borel normality --- Bayesian inference --- model selection --- random numbers --- quantum-like models --- operational approach --- information interpretation of quantum theory --- social laser --- social energy --- quantum information field --- social atom --- Bose–Einstein statistics --- bandwagon effect --- social thermodynamics --- resonator of social laser --- master equation for socio-information excitations --- quantum contextuality --- Kochen–Specker sets --- MMP hypergraphs --- Greechie diagrams --- quantum foundations --- probability --- irreducible randomness --- random number generators --- quantum technology --- entanglement --- quantum-like models for social stochasticity --- contextuality

Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977940 9783038977957 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-795-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Geophysics and Geomagnetism
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous media have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, especially in the oil and gas industry. A wide range of research studies have been conducted on the characterization of porous media covers and multiphase flow therein. Reliable approaches for characterizing microstructure and multiphase flow in porous media are crucial in many fields, including the characterization of residual water or oil in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the long-term storage of supercritical CO2 in geological formations. This book gathers together 15 recent works to emphasize fundamental innovations in the field and novel applications of petrophysics in unconventional reservoirs, including experimental studies, numerical modeling (fractal approach), and multiphase flow modeling/simulations. The relevant stakeholders of this book are authorities and service companies working in the petroleum, subsurface water resources, air and water pollution, environmental, and biomaterial sectors.

Keywords

Wilkins equation --- non-laminar flow --- turbulence modelling --- porous media --- oil tanker --- temperature drop --- oscillating motion --- numerical simulation --- soil-water characteristic curve --- initial void ratio --- air-entry value --- fractal dimension --- fractal model --- oil properties --- diffusion coefficient --- supercritical CO2 --- Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) --- CT --- digital rock --- microfractures --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- pore-scale simulations --- tight sandstone --- pore structure --- multifractal --- classification --- Ordos Basin --- loose media --- coal --- porosity --- true density --- bulk density --- overburden pressure --- particle size --- tight conglomerate --- fracture characterization and prediction --- fractal method --- salt rock --- creep --- damage --- fractional derivative --- acoustic emission --- marine gas hydrate --- submarine landslide --- greenhouse gas emission --- lifecycle management --- hazard prevention --- multilayer reservoir --- interlayer interference --- producing degree --- seepage resistance --- wellbore multiphase flow --- inclined angle --- liquid rate --- gas rate --- pressure drawdown model with new coefficients --- base-level cycle --- pore structure --- mouth bar sand body --- Huanghua Depression --- isotopic composition --- methane --- gas hydrate --- South China Sea --- Bakken Formation --- pore structure --- controlling factors --- low-temperature nitrogen adsorption --- petrophysics --- fractal porous media --- unconventional reservoirs --- multiphase flow

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