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Neuroimaging - Structure, Function and Mind

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ISBN: 9781789858051 9781789858068 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76733 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Neuroimaging provides a valuable noninvasive window into the human neural system and is used in fundamental and clinical research. Imaging techniques are essential for understanding spontaneous neural activity and brain mechanisms engaged in the processing of external inputs, memory formation, and cognition. Modern imaging modalities make it possible to visualize memory processes within the brain and to create images of its structure and function. Scientists and technologists are joining forces to pave the way for improving imaging technologies and methods, data analysis, and the application of imaging to investigate the wide spectra of neurological diseases, neuropsychological disorders, and aging. Imaging techniques are essential for the identification of biological markers of the earliest stages of neurodiseases and the development of new therapies. This book intends to provide the reader with a short overview of the current achievements in the state-of-the-art imaging modality methods, their highlights, and limitations in neuroscience research and clinical applications. The current state of in-vivo neuroimaging methods in the context of the understanding and diagnosis of mental disorders and relation to the mind is also discussed in a modern compact format, featuring the latest and most relevant research results.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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ISBN: 9781789238211 9781789238228 9781838801731 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78456 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Diagnostic imaging has undergone many changes over the last several years. Technical developments have defined Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the leading diagnostic modality in different diseases. MRI is definitive and sensitive and the current requirements of medicine call for radiologists to be proficient in its use. This book provides complete and detailed information about the fast-developing field of MRI from physicians, radiologists, and other clinical specialists. It is a practical guide to using MRI in areas such as cardiology and pulmonology, among others.

Essentials of Abdominal Ultrasound

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ISBN: 9781789842111 9781789842128 9781789847444 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73848 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Abdominal ultrasound is a bedside diagnostic tool that helps to discover many abdominal problems. It is a safe and painless procedure that has proven extremely useful for patient workup and diagnosis. This book illustrates the use of ultrasound for all the various organs of the abdomen. Each chapter covers a different organ and presents the latest knowledge and techniques of imaging. The content contained within is relevant across many specialties, including radiology and internal medicine, and is useful for physicians and medical residents and students alike.

Infrared Spectroscopy - Life and Biomedical Sciences

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ISBN: 9789535105381 9789535142980 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.5772/2655 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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This informative and state-of-the art book on Infrared Spectroscopy in Life sciences designed for researchers, academics as well as for those working in industry, agriculture and in pharmaceutical companies features 20 chapters of applications of MIRS and NIRS in brain activity and clinical research. It shows excellent FT-IR spectra of breast tissues, atheromatic plaques, human bones and projects assessment of haemodynamic activation in the cerebral cortex, brain oxygenation studies and many interesting insights from a medical perspective.

Assessment of Cellular and Organ Function and Dysfunction using Direct and Derived MRI Methodologies

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ISBN: 9789535127222 9789535127239 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.5772/61953 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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Despite the tremendous growth in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidenced in the initial phases of its development in the early twentieth century, scientific focus has shifted in recent years toward the study of physiology and pathophysiology that span the spatial scales of the molecule, cell, tissue, and organ. Intensified research activities over the past 15 years have justified efforts toward molecular and cellular imaging, dual-modality imaging systems, real-time acquisitions, dedicated image processing techniques and applications, and the critical evaluation of their potential translational value for use in the clinic. The integrative focus on molecular-cellular-tissue-organ function and dysfunction has taken a primary role in modern, personalized medicine, and it is envisaged to continue to do so, as accumulated knowledge from basic and clinical science work continues to elucidate molecular, cellular, and physiological/pathophysiological pathways and mechanisms. In this scientific effort, MRI continues to play a critical and synergistic role from the perspectives of basic science, diagnosis, and clinical interventional/therapeutic approaches. Within the realm of the current role of MRI in modern medicine, this book summarizes state-of-the-art direct and derived MRI methodologies and approaches as applied toward the assessment of cellular and organ function and dysfunction. The contributions in this effort are not excessive but few, comprehensive, and distinguished and of high quality. The topic areas can be generalized to find applications in other scientific areas and span both brain and cardiac applications, extending interest to wider audiences.

Interdisziplinäre Dokumentations- und Visualisierungsmethoden

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ISBN: 9783700171454 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_453483 Language: English
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 17
Subject: Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:32
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This publication focuses on (natural) scientific methods in studying and analyzing ancient pottery and discusses several case studies of the application on ancient vases stored in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Universalmuseum Joanneum Graz, and Collection of the Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. So called non-invasive methods (without sampling) are favored, e. g. using high-resolution computer tomography, X-ray fluorescence analysis.

Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451838 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-183-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization of a pathogen, (b) development of systems for detection of cases, (c) descriptive epidemiology and quantification of disease patterns, and (d) advanced analytical methods to design intervention strategies. Briefly, there is an initial need for understanding the pathogeny of a disease and condition, which may also include experimental studies and development of new models of infection and proliferation under different conditions. Subsequently, such knowledgemay be applied to support the identification of cases, which typically includes the design, evaluation, and validation of diagnostic tests. Diseasemay then be quantified in a population, leading to the identification of patterns and application of molecular characterization techniques to understand disease spread, and ultimately to identify factors preventing or promoting disease. Finally, those factors may be incorporated into advanced quantitative methods and epidemiological models, which are used to design and evaluate strategies aimed at preventing, controlling, or eliminating disease in the population.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the application of science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) tools and approaches intended to enhance such analytical epidemiology process, with the ultimate goal of supporting disease prevention, control, and eradication. This eBook comprises a series of research articles that, through current state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the application of STEM tools to the microbiology of infectious diseases, demonstrate their usefulness at the various components of an integral epidemiological approach, divided into the four large components of (a) experimental studies, (b) novel diagnostic techniques, (c) epidemiological characterization, and (d) population modeling and intervention.

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: The Present and the Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450411 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-041-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant cognitive deficits, behavioral changes, sleep disorders and loss of functional autonomy. AD represents the main cause of dementia and has become a major public health issue. In addition, the number of patients suffering from AD is growing rapidly as the population ages worldwide. Memory impairment is usually the earliest clinical and core symptom of this disease. The diagnosis at a late clinical stage is relatively easy. However, a delay in the diagnosis is damageable for the handling of patients in terms of optimal medical and social care. The actual interest of the scientific head-ways is to optimize the diagnosis in prodromal stage of the disease and to propose personalized therapeutic solutions to individual patients. New revised AD diagnostic criteria include early alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: decrease of amyloïd peptides (Aß42), and increase in tau and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) protein concentration. This recognition of CSF biological biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD is a major step towards the “molecular” diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. Many issues are however still subject of debate. This e-book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of fluid biomarkers for AD, e.g. which novel biomarkers should be implemented in clinical practice for diagnosis or for monitoring treatment or side effects, which ones are new for AD or related dementias or what is the potential of peripheral blood markers. Moreover, the e-Book provides practical guidelines how to optimally and efficiently develop and validate novel biomarker assays, and to document and control pre-analytical variation.

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