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Crystal Growth of Multifunctional Borates and Related Materials

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ISBN: 9783038978381 9783038978398 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-839-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Borate crystals are attractive for different technological applications because of their favorable physical and chemical properties like stability and high transparency, both high thermal and non-linear optical coefficients, making them ideal active media for highly efficient solid state lasers. In this Special Issue, different aspects of multifunctional borate crystals are discussed, including ortho- and oxyorthoborates and compounds with condensed anions, as well as their nonlinear optical and laser properties and piezoelectric characteristics. For this reason, complex investigations of the phase relationships in multi-component borate melts, the study of crystal growth conditions of novel high-temperature borates, and the development of the &ldquo;crystallization conditions, composition, structure, and properties&rdquo; concept will provide a scientific basis for growth technologies of high performance electronic and optical devices and components with a variety of industrial, medical and many other applications. In the meantime, these relationships can help to estimate the affinity of synthetic borate materials with their natural prototypes and structural analogues.

Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands

ISBN: 9783038422471 9783038422488 Year: Pages: XXII, 302 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-15 12:12:28
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Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

Advances in Computer Simulation Studies on Crystal Growth

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ISBN: 9783038973560 9783038973577 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-357-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 11:51:21
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Crystals are indispensable in technology, nature, and our daily lives. For example, cooking uses many kinds of crystallized products, such as salt, sugar, and fat crystals; electronic devices contain semiconductor crystals; living organisms produce mineral crystals to maintain biological processes; and snow and ice crystals play a crucial role in climate change. For these and other topics related to crystals, an especially important area of research is crystal growth. Computer simulations of crystal growth have become increasingly important as a result of rapid increases in available computing power. Computer simulations can analyze and predict various aspects of crystal growth, including molecular-scale growth and nucleation mechanisms, the structure and dynamics of surfaces and interfaces, and pattern formation. This book presents state-of-the-art research and reviews of computer simulation studies on crystal growth for hard-sphere particles, organic molecules, ice, and functional materials. The studies use a variety of simulation methodologies, including molecular simulations, first-principles simulations, continuum simulations, and multiscale simulations. This book will interest graduate students and researchers in crystal growth science and technology and will provide a helpful reference for scientists who want to familiarize themselves with computer simulations of crystal growth.

Diamond Crystals

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ISBN: 9783038976301 9783038976318 Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-631-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Mathematics --- Physics (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 10:46:29
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This Special Issue is intended to serve as an interdisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. The issue contains 13 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology.

Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field

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ISBN: 9783038975199 9783038975205 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-520-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book entitled “Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field” covers recent trends and original contributions on the use of electric fields (internal and external) for applications for nucleation control and the effect on the kinetics of crystallization processes. This book also includes basic strategies for growing crystals of biological macromolecules for characterization via X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as using modern X-ray-free electron-lasers. There are six main topics covered on this book, including recent insights into the crystallization process from nucleation and growth peculiarities, when using different kinds of electric fields; the effect of external electric fields on the kinetics of the dislocation-free growth of model proteins; the use of very strong external electric fields for the crystallization of a model protein glucose isomerase; and the use of alternant electric fields using different kinds of pulses and their combination with strong magnetic fields. There are also contributions related to applications in developing electron-transfer devices as well as graphene-based platforms for electrocrystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction characterization.

Nucleation of Minerals: Precursors, Intermediates and Their Use in Materials Chemistry

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ISBN: 9783038970354 9783038970361 Year: Pages: X, 236 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 13:19:56
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Nucleation is the key event in mineralisation, but a general molecular understanding of phase separation mechanisms is still missing, despite more than 100 years of research in this field. In recent years, many studies have highlighted the occurrence of precursors and intermediates, which seem to challenge the assumptions underlying classical theories of nucleation and growth. This is especially true for the field of biomineralisation, where bio-inspired strategies take advantage of the special properties of the precursors and intermediates for the generation of advanced materials. All of this has led to the development of "non-classical" frameworks, which, however, often lack quantitative expressions for the evaluation and prediction of phase separation, growth and ripening processes, and are under considerable debate. It is thus evident that there is a crucial need for research into the early stages of mineral nucleation and growth, designed for the testing, refinement, and expansion of the different existing notions. This Special Issue of Minerals aims to bring together corresponding studies from all these areas, dealing with precursors and intermediates in mineralisation with the hope that it may contribute to the achievement of a better understanding of nucleation precursors and intermediates, and their target-oriented use in materials chemistry.

Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals

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ISBN: 9783038975335 9783038975342 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-534-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 09:35:49
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The history of science can teach modern men that our understanding of life is to a great extent based on the accuracy of the analytical methods that we use and, on our readiness to oppose dogmatic opinions, which are based on outdated methods and black/white approaches to the major questions raised by mankind in the past. The recent decades have brought a lot of new insights into the fundamentals of the active principles of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for living cells, but which also cause dangerous pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, although they were previously considered to be the most undesired toxic compounds generated as the final products of the oxidative degradation of lipids, reactive aldehydes are now considered to play important roles both in health and in major diseases. Represented mostly by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a substance discovered only fifty years ago, reactive aldehydes are the focus of research not only because of their toxicity but also because of their positive effects regulating the most important metabolic processes such as growth of living cells or the death of cells. Better understanding the interactions between reactive aldehydes and natural or synthetic antioxidant substances might eventually help us to better monitor, prevent and control modern diseases, thus building pillars for the development of the modern, multidisciplinary life sciences and integrative medicine of the 21st century.

Advanced Approaches Applied to Materials Development and Design Predictions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039284122 9783039284139 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-413-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This thematic issue on advanced simulation tools applied to materials development and design predictions gathers selected extended papers related to power generation systems, presented at the XIX International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals (ICMFM XIX), organized at University of Porto, Portugal, in 2018. In this issue, the limits of the current generation of materials are explored, which are continuously being reached according to the frontier of hostile environments, whether in the aerospace, nuclear, or petrochemistry industry, or in the design of gas turbines where efficiency of energy production and transformation demands increased temperatures and pressures. Thus, advanced methods and applications for theoretical, numerical, and experimental contributions that address these issues on failure mechanism modeling and simulation of materials are covered. As the Guest Editors, we would like to thank all the authors who submitted papers to this Special Issue. All the papers published were peer-reviewed by experts in the field whose comments helped to improve the quality of the edition. We also would like to thank the Editorial Board of Materials for their assistance in managing this Special Issue.

Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair/Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039218608 9783039218615 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-861-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue on “Blood-Derived Products for Tissue Repair and Regeneration” reveals the evolution and diversity of platelet rich plasma (PRP) technologies, which includes experimental research on novel formulations, the creation of combination therapies, and the exploration of potential modifiers of PRPs, as well as efficacy of PRP therapies in clinical veterinary and human applications. Scientist and clinicians are now starting to develop different treatments based on their reinterpretation of the traditional roles of platelets and plasma, and the current Issue has provided a forum for sharing research and ways of understanding the associated medicinal benefits from different points of view. The research interest in this area has covered different medical disciplines, such as ophthalmology, dentistry, orthopedics, and sports medicine.

Keywords

platelets --- burns --- growth factors --- platelet rich plasma --- quantification --- articular cartilage --- cartilage repair --- redifferentiation --- collagen hydrogels --- biologics --- hyperacute serum --- platelet-rich plasma --- fibrosis --- myoblasts --- myofibroblasts --- myogenesis --- Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) --- Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP) --- satellite cells --- skeletal muscle regeneration --- stem cell niche --- regenerative medicine --- hyperacute serum --- platelet-rich plasma --- blood derived products --- composition --- meniscus --- meniscus repair --- meniscus tear --- trephination --- platelet-rich plasma --- PRP --- chronic meniscal lesion --- horizontal meniscal tear --- periosteal sheet --- platelet-rich fibrin --- growth --- differentiation --- bone grafting material --- PRGF --- Carprofen --- dog --- fracture --- bone healing --- wrist osteoarthritis --- microfat --- platelet-rich plasma --- cell therapy --- adipose tissue --- PRP --- knee arthrosis --- growth factors --- autologous platelet concentrates --- bone defects --- bone grafting --- bone regeneration --- furcation defects --- periodontal defects --- periodontal regeneration --- periodontal surgery --- platelet-rich plasma --- platelet-rich fibrin --- plasma rich in growth factors --- tissue healing --- corneal epithelial defect --- cornea regeneration --- serum eye drops --- plasma rich plasma (PRP) --- serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors (s-PRGF) --- hyaluronic acid (NaHA) --- wound healing --- bone regeneration --- bone repair --- fibrin sealant --- biomaterial --- photobiomodulation therapy --- low-level laser therapy --- n/a

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

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