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Genetic Diversity

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ISBN: 9789535129493 9789535129509 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/63174 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Genetics
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Genetic diversity is the entire amount of genes and genotypes in a group of organisms and is of vital importance for their adaptation to different living conditions. If, for example, all humans were identical, the extinction of the entire kind could happen very fast. Let us care and nourish differences! The goal of this book is to present some of the contemporary thoughts on understandings of the genetic diversity patterns and their altering in a changing world. The book is aimed to the ones inspired to study and contemplate genetic diversity and to the audience beyond any frames.

Melanin

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ISBN: 9789535129790 9789535129806 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/63257 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
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The word melanin refers to dark natural pigments produced by the oxidative degradation of tyrosine, catalyzed by tyrosinase, and polymerized into insoluble granular substance. The main function of melanin is to protect from harmful agents, primarily UV radiation, but also from oxidation, heavy metals, etc. In this volume, chapters deal with production of melanin in human oral mucosa (Liviu et al.), the regulation of melanin action (Cecile et al.), production and potential technological application of fungal melanins (Pombiero-Sponchiado et al.) and an innovative method for measuring melanin in various samples (Zdybel et al.). In conclusion, this volume presents various biological and industrial aspects of melanin production, uses and analysis.

Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535129813 9789535129820 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.5772/63039 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences --- Microbiology
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Staphylococcus was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1880 and was named for its grape cluster-like appearance. In 1884, Staphylococcus aureus was identified and named for its vibrant golden color, which was later found to be the result of golden toxin production. Here, experts examine in-depth patterns of S. aureus colonization and exposures in humans, mammals, and birds that have led to the development of various clinical diseases. The mode of transmission of S. aureus and different methods for its detection in different samples are defined. Conventional antibiotic options to treat this aggressive, multifaceted, and readily adaptable pathogen are becoming limited. Alternative, novel chemotherapeutics to target S. aureus are discussed in the pages within, including herbal medicines, bee products, and modes of delivery.

The Rise of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535129837 9789535129844 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/67546 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a growing issue both within hospitals and community because of its virulence determinants and the continuing emergence of new strains resistant to antimicrobiotics. In this book, we present the state of the art of S. aureus virulence mechanisms and antibiotic-resistance profiles, providing an unprecedented and comprehensive collection of up-to-date research about the evolution, dissemination, and mechanisms of different staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance patterns alongside bacterial virulence determinants and their impact in the medical field. We include several review chapters to allow readers to better understand the mechanisms of methicillin resistance, glycopeptide resistance, and horizontal gene transfer and the effects of alterations in S. aureus membranes and cell walls on drug resistance. In addition, we include chapters dedicated to unveiling S. aureus pathogenicity with the most current research available on S. aureus exfoliative toxins, enterotoxins, surface proteins, biofilm, and defensive responses of S. aureus to antibiotic treatment.

Active Ingredients from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

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ISBN: 9789535129752 9789535129769 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.5772/67161 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Botany
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Recently, new compounds from medicinal plants were discovered, and they were used as anti-severe diseases. Therefore, this book covers interested research topics dealing with isolation, purification, and identification of active ingredients from wild and medicinal plants. This discovery will lead to an increase in the global pharmaceutical market as well as open such new gate for medicinal plant research. This book will add significant information to medical researchers and can be used for postgraduate students.

Herbivores

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ISBN: 9789535129875 9789535129882 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/62658 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Zoology
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This book provides an overview of the current knowledge of herbivory. This book contains chapters from a wide variety of topics that fall into the following broad sections: (I) ""Plant Defense Mechanisms and Herbivore Adaptations,"" (II) ""Herbivory and Food Processing of Grazing Animals,"" and (III) ""Herbivory Effects on Plant Communities."" More specifically, the contributions of this book, written by experts in their respective fields, focus on topics including the chemical plant defense against herbivores as well as herbivore adaptions to plant cyanide defenses, the utilization of biomarkers to study grazing behavior of ruminants, modeling for describing ruminant herbivory, as well as improving grain processing to improve dairy cow performance. Contributions on positive indirect interactions in marine herbivores and algae are included, as is one focusing on herbivory by lizards. These chapters represent recent contributions showing the diversity of ongoing research in this field of study. This book targets a wide audience of general biologists as well as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists including both teachers and students in gaining a better appreciation of this rapidly growing field.

Honey Analysis

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ISBN: 9789535128793 9789535128809 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.5772/63259 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Animal Sciences
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The book Honey Analysis has 15 chapters divided into two sections: one section that is dedicated to the analysis of bioactive, physicochemical, and microbiological compounds and another that addresses techniques for the detection of residues and heavy metals. We have been able to compile a book with chapters by authors from nine countries (Brazil, Chile, Italy, Malta, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Turkey) and at least three continents (South America, Europe, and Oceania). The topics discussed here are physical-chemical analysis of honey, new methods for amino acid analysis, chemical residues, heavy metals, phenolic content and bioactive components, microbiological analysis, antimicrobial activity, and honey as functional food. Also there are notions of trade and characterization of honey in these countries, presenting the reality of the local market of these countries and their perspectives so that we can know more about the techniques used as well as the importance of this activity for each country. This may facilitate the use of innovative techniques that may enable increased competitiveness and the world honey trade.

Advances in International Rice Research

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ISBN: 9789535130093 9789535130109 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.5772/63007 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
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Rice provides staple food for more than 50% of the world's population and is an important crop in the world. With the new technologies such as high-throughput genome sequencing and integrated ""-omis"" methods applied in rice researches, great advancements have been made. This book was aimed to show a glance of new advancements in the international rice researches. The first section of the book introduced rice cultivation and production. As core sections of the book, the second and third sections introduced physiological and genetic mechanisms on grain quality and biotic and abiotic stress resistance as well as breeding. In the last section, we introduced new technologies such as chromatin immunoprecipitation, integrated ""-omis"" methods, and bistatic interferometry technology in rice research.

Immunopathogenesis and Immune-based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders

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ISBN: 9789535130215 9789535130222 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/63032 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
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The book Immunopathogenesis and Immune-Based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders is a synthesis work that discusses two main aspects of autoimmunity: Immunopathogenesis and therapeutic approaches essentially based on the immunotherapies. This book deals with different topics on a number of autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity of gastrointestinal tract, systemic sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis. This book will be useful to clinicians, biologists, researchers, teachers, and students who are interested in immunology and immunopathology.

Rice - Technology and Production

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535130291 9789535130307 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.5772/64480 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
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Rice is life, for most people living in Asia. Rice has shaped the cultures, diets, and economies of thousands of millions of people. Growing, selling, and eating rice are integral to the culture of many countries. Products of the rice plant are used for a number of different purposes, such as fuel, thatching, industrial starch, and artwork. Rice is the staple food of more than half of the world's population - more than 3.5 billion people depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily calories. Asia accounts for 90% of global rice consumption, exceeding 100 kg per capita annually in many countries. Keeping in view the importance of rice, the United Nations declared 2004 as the International Year of Rice. Food security, which is the condition of having enough food to provide adequate nutrition for a healthy life, is a critical issue. Sustainable rice production is important for food self-sufficiency and food security in changing climates. Sustainable rice production practices are those which (1) increase rice productivity and its quality, (2) improve soil fertility and health, (3) increase water use efficiency and conservation, and (4) increase diversification of rice fields, growers' income, and climate resilience.

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