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Book Series: Translation and Multilingual Natural Language Processing ISBN: 9783961100668 9783961100651 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1180721 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103526
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 11:01:02
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Historically a dubbing country, Germany is not well-known for subtitled productions. But while dubbing is predominant in Germany, more and more German viewers prefer original and subtitled versions of their favourite shows and films. Conventional subtitling, however, can be seen as a strong intrusion into the original image that can not only disrupt but also destroy the director’s intended shot composition and focus points. Long eye movements between focus points and subtitles decrease the viewer’s information intake, and especially German audiences, who are often not used to subtitles, seem to prefer to wait for the next subtitle instead of looking back up again. Furthermore, not only the placement, but also the overall design of conventional subtitles can disturb the image composition – for instance titles with a weak contrast, inappropriate typeface or irritating colour system.So should it not, despite the translation process, be possible to preserve both image and sound as far as possible? Especially given today’s numerous artistic and technical possibilities and the huge amount of work that goes into the visual aspects of a film, taking into account not only special effects, but also typefaces, opening credits and text-image compositions. A further development of existing subtitling guidelines would not only express respect towards the original film version but also the translator’s work.

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Linguistics

Analyzing meaning

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Book Series: Textbooks in Language Sciences ISBN: 9783961100354 9783961100675 9783961100347 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1164112 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103534
Subject: Linguistics
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This book provides an introduction to the study of meaning in human language, from a linguistic perspective. It covers a fairly broad range of topics, including lexical semantics, compositional semantics, and pragmatics. The chapters are organized into six units: (1) Foundational concepts; (2) Word meanings; (3) Implicature (including indirect speech acts); (4) Compositional semantics; (5) Modals, conditionals, and causation; (6) Tense & aspect.Most of the chapters include exercises which can be used for class discussion and/or homework assignments, and each chapter contains references for additional reading on the topics covered.As the title indicates, this book is truly an INTRODUCTION: it provides a solid foundation which will prepare students to take more advanced and specialized courses in semantics and/or pragmatics. It is also intended as a reference for fieldworkers doing primary research on under-documented languages, to help them write grammatical descriptions that deal carefully and clearly with semantic issues. The approach adopted here is largely descriptive and non-formal (or, in some places, semi-formal), although some basic logical notation is introduced. The book is written at level which should be appropriate for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. It presupposes some previous coursework in linguistics, but does not presuppose any background in formal logic or set theory.

Keywords

Linguistics

The acrolect in Jamaica

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ISBN: 9783961101153 9783961101146 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1306618 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103665
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:04
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An ability to speak Jamaican Standard English is the stated requirement for any managerial or frontline position in corporate Jamaica. This research looks at the phonological variation that occurs in the formal speech of this type of employee, and focuses on the specific cohort chosen to represent Jamaica in interactions with local and international clients. The variation that does emerge, shows both the presence of some features traditionally characterized as Creole and a clear avoidance of other features found in basilectal and mesolectal Jamaican. Some phonological items are prerequisites for “good English” - variables that define the user as someone who speaks English - even if other Creole variants are present. The ideologies of language and language use that Jamaican speakers hold about “good English” clearly reflect the centuries-old coexistence of English and Creole, and suggest local norms must be our starting point for discussing the acrolect.

Keywords

Linguistics

Sound change, priming, salience

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Book Series: Language Variation ISBN: 9783961101207 9783961101191 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1451308 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103660
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:04
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This volume investigates the realisation and perception of four phonological variables in Liverpool English (Scouse), with a special focus on their sociolinguistic salience. Younger speakers’ speech is found to be more local, but only for the two salient variables in the sample (NURSE-SQUARE and /k/ lenition), which appear to carry considerable amounts of covert prestige. Local variants of non-salient happy-tensing and velar nasal plus, on the other hand, are actually found to be receding, so at least to a certain extent Scouse also seems to be participating in regional dialect levelling. The importance of salience is also obvious in the perception data, with only the two highly salient stereotypes generating robust effects in a social priming experiment (albeit in the unexpected direction). These results indicate that the investigated variables differ measurably not only in their use in production, but also in terms of how central they are to mental sociolinguistic representations of Scouse. They also tell us more about the way we process, store, and (re-)use sociolinguistic variation in perception. By defining likely contexts for significant priming effects they might finally even help in coming up with a more elaborate “theory of priming” in the realm of sociophonetics.

Keywords

Linguistics

Multiword expressions at length and in depth

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783961101245 9783961101238 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1469527 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103663
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:04
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The annual workshop on multiword expressions takes place since 2001 in conjunction with major computational linguistics conferences and attracts the attention of an ever-growing community working on a variety of languages, linguistic phenomena and related computational processing issues. MWE 2017 took place in Valencia, Spain, and represented a vibrant panorama of the current research landscape on the computational treatment of multiword expressions, featuring many high-quality submissions. Furthermore, MWE 2017 included the first shared task on multilingual identification of verbal multiword expressions. The shared task, with extended communal work, has developed important multilingual resources and mobilised several research groups in computational linguistics worldwide. This book contains extended versions of selected papers from the workshop. Authors worked hard to include detailed explanations, broader and deeper analyses, and new exciting results, which were thoroughly reviewed by an internationally renowned committee. We hope that this distinctly joint effort will provide a meaningful and useful snapshot of the multilingual state of the art in multiword expressions modelling and processing, and will be a point point of reference for future work.

Keywords

Linguistics

Methods in prosody

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Studies in Laboratory Phonology ISBN: 9783961101054 9783961101047 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1471564 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103662
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:04
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This book presents a collection of pioneering papers reflecting current methods in prosody research with a focus on Romance languages. The rapid expansion of the field of prosody research in the last decades has given rise to a proliferation of methods that has left little room for the critical assessment of these methods. The aim of this volume is to bridge this gap by embracing original contributions, in which experts in the field assess, reflect, and discuss different methods of data gathering and analysis. The book might thus be of interest to scholars and established researchers as well as to students and young academics who wish to explore the topic of prosody, an expanding and promising area of study.

Keywords

Linguistics

East Benue-Congo

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ISBN: 9783961101016 9783961101009 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1314306 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103661
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:05
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This volume is the first in what hopefully will be a growing set of edited volumes and monographs concerning Niger-Congo comparative studies. This first volume addresses matters that are relevant to the entire East Benue-Congo family as well as the particular branches Kainji, Plateau, and Bantoid. In the case of Bantoid, the particular focus is on Grassfields and the Grassfields-Bantu borderland, though other Bantoid subgroups are referenced. The potential topics for comparative studies among these languages are numerous, but this volume is dedicated to presentations on nominal affixes, third person pronouns, and verbal extensions. A forthcoming volume will provide some results of reconstructions and lexicostatistics in Cross River, exploratory reconstructions in Southern Jukunoid, and reconstructions in Ekoid-Mbe and Mambiloid.

Keywords

Linguistics

A lexicalist account of argument structure

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ISBN: 9783961101221 9783961101214 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1441351 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103664
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:05
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Currently, there are two prominent schools in linguistics: Minimalism (Chomsky) and Construction Grammar (Goldberg, Tomasello). Minimalism comes with the claim that our linguistic capabilities consist of an abstract, binary combinatorial operation (Merge) and a lexicon. Most versions of Construction Grammar assume that language consists of flat phrasal schemata that contribute their own meaning and may license additional arguments. This book examines a variant of Lexical Functional Grammar, which is lexical in principle but was augmented by tools that allow for the description of phrasal constructions in the Construction Grammar sense. These new tools include templates that can be used to model inheritance hierarchies and a resource driven semantics. The resource driven semantics makes it possible to reach the effects that lexical rules had, for example remapping of arguments, by semantic means. The semantic constraints can be evaluated in the syntactic component, which is basically similar to the delayed execution of lexical rules. So this is a new formalization that might be suitable to provide solutions to longstanding problems that are not available for other formalizations.

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Linguistics

The Unicode cookbook for linguists

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Book Series: Translation and Multilingual Natural Language Processing ISBN: 9783961100910 9783961100903 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1296780 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103595
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:06
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This text is a practical guide for linguists, and programmers, who work with data in multilingual computational environments. We introduce the basic concepts needed to understand how writing systems and character encodings function, and how they work together at the intersection between the Unicode Standard and the International Phonetic Alphabet. Although these standards are often met with frustration by users, they nevertheless provide language researchers and programmers with a consistent computational architecture needed to process, publish and analyze lexical data from the world's languages. Thus we bring to light common, but not always transparent, pitfalls which researchers face when working with Unicode and IPA. Having identified and overcome these pitfalls involved in making writing systems and character encodings syntactically and semantically interoperable (to the extent that they can be), we created a suite of open-source Python and R tools to work with languages using orthography profiles that describe author- or document-specific orthographic conventions. In this cookbook we describe a formal specification of orthography profiles and provide recipes using open source tools to show how users can segment text, analyze it, identify errors, and to transform it into different written forms for comparative linguistics research.

Keywords

Linguistics

The numeral system of Proto-Niger-Congo

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ISBN: 9783961100996 9783961100989 Year: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1311704 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103598
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:06
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Abstract

This book proposes the reconstruction of the Proto-Niger-Congo numeral system. The emphasis is placed on providing an exhaustive account of the distribution of forms by families, groups, and branches. The big data bases used for this purpose open prospects for both working with the distribution of words that do exist and with the distribution of gaps in postulated cognates. The distribution of filled cells and gaps is a useful tool for reconstruction.

Keywords

Linguistics

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