Search results: Found 26

Listing 11 - 20 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal Aging

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193905 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-390-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

We live in a world with an ever-increasing aging population. This aging population is predicted to place a huge financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Understanding healthy ageing is a key research priority, along with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ageing that occurs in a number of age related diseases, such as arthritis. By gaining a better understanding of healthy musculoskeletal ageing we can provide better care and new therapies for common musculoskeletal problems. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the broad area of musculoskeletal ageing. The topic includes mechanisms of healthy ageing in the musculoskeletal system, which we define as skeletal muscle and the synovial joint, particularly constituent structures including articular cartilage, subchondral bone tendon and ligament. A particular focus of this Research Topic is dietary modulation of musculoskeletal ageing.

Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195213 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-521-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It becomes increasingly clear that the basis of antibiotic resistance problem among bacterial pathogens is not confined to the borders of clinical microbiology but has broader ecological and evolutionary associations. This Research Topic “Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment” in Frontiers in Microbiology, section Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, presents the examples of occurrence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the wide range of environments, from the grasslands of the Colombian Andes, to the dairy farms and small animal veterinary hospitals in the United Stated, and to the various environments of Continental Europe and Indochina. Besides, various genetic mechanisms and selection/co-selection factors contributing to the dissemination and maintenance of antibiotic resistance genes are presented. The topic is finalized by the mathematical modeling approach to access the probability of rare horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

Intellectual Disabilities in Down Syndrome from Birth and throughout Life: Assessment and Treatment

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450459 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-045-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Research on the multiple aspects of cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS), from genes to behavior to treatment, has made tremendous progress in the last decade. The study of congenital intellectual disabilities such as DS is challenging since they originate from the earliest stages of development and both the acquisition of cognitive skills and neurodegenerative pathologies are cumulative. Comorbidities such as cardiac malformations, sleep apnea, diabetes and dementia are frequent in the DS population, as well, and their increased risk provides a means of assessing early stages of these pathologies that is relevant to the general population. Notably, persons with DS will develop the histopathology of Alzheimer’s disease (formation of neuritic plaques and tangles) and are at high risk for dementia, something that cannot be predicted in the population at large. Identification of the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein, its localization to chromosome 21 in the 90’s and realization that all persons with DS develop pathology identified this as an important piece of the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Awareness of the potential role of people with DS in understanding progression and treatment as well as identification of genetic risk factors and also protective factors for AD is reawakening. For the first time since DS was recognized, major pharmaceutical companies have entered the search for ameliorative treatments, and phase II clinical trials to improve learning and memory are in progress. Enriched environment, brain stimulation and alternative therapies are being tested while clinical assessment is improving, thus increasing the chances of success for therapeutic interventions. Researchers and clinicians are actively pursuing the possibility of prenatal treatments for many conditions, an area with a huge potential impact for developmental disorders such as DS. Our goal here is to present an overview of recent advances with an emphasis on behavioral and cognitive deficits and how these issues change through life in DS. The relevance of comorbidities to the end phenotypes described and relevance of pharmacological targets and possible treatments will be considerations throughout.Research on the multiple aspects of cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS), from genes to behavior to treatment, has made tremendous progress in the last decade. The study of congenital intellectual disabilities such as DS is challenging since they originate from the earliest stages of development and both the acquisition of cognitive skills and neurodegenerative pathologies are cumulative. Comorbidities such as cardiac malformations, sleep apnea, diabetes and dementia are frequent in the DS population, as well, and their increased risk provides a means of assessing early stages of these pathologies that is relevant to the general population. Notably, persons with DS will develop the histopathology of Alzheimer’s disease (formation of neuritic plaques and tangles) and are at high risk for dementia, something that cannot be predicted in the population at large. Identification of the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein, its localization to chromosome 21 in the 90’s and realization that all persons with DS develop pathology identified this as an important piece of the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Awareness of the potential role of people with DS in understanding progression and treatment as well as identification of genetic risk factors and also protective factors for AD is reawakening. For the first time since DS was recognized, major pharmaceutical companies have entered the search for ameliorative treatments, and phase II clinical trials to improve learning and memory are in progress. Enriched environment, brain stimulation and alternative therapies are being tested while clinical assessment is improving, thus increasing the chances of success for therapeutic interventions. Researchers and clinicians are actively pursuing the possibility of prenatal treatments for many conditions, an area with a huge potential impact for developmental disorders such as DS. Our goal here is to present an overview of recent advances with an emphasis on behavioral and cognitive deficits and how these issues change through life in DS. The relevance of comorbidities to the end phenotypes described and relevance of pharmacological targets and possible treatments will be considerations throughout.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research - Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co-products

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451982 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

The Neurobiology and Genetics of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: New Avenues through Large-Scale Collaborative Projects

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453238 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-323-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Science (General) --- Neurology --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a common, albeit severely under-diagnosed, neuropsychiatric disorder that is caused by a complex genetic basis, interacting with environmental factors. High comorbidity rates with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder raise the intriguing hypothesis of a shared etiological background. Abnormalities of corticostriatal-thalamic-cortical circuits (CSTC) and dysfunction of both dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems are assumed to be associated with TS. Recently, multiple lines of evidence also point towards an important role of additional neurotransmitters such as histamine and glutamate. For a very long time, efforts to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of TS have been fragmented and hampered by low statistical power. Finally, after more than two decades of active research aiming to identify the etiology and pathophysiology of TS, we are on the verge of a new era, promising exciting and rapid discoveries in the field. Investigators from around the world, representing multiple disciplines and scientific approaches, are joining their efforts in large-scale initiatives supported both by European Union and US National funding agencies, such as the European-funded EMTICS, TACTICS, and TSGeneSEE consortia, the Marie Curie Initial Training Network TS-EUROTRAIN and the European Society for the Study of TS joining forces with the NIH-funded TSAICG, GGRI, and Tic Genetics consortia. Importantly, all these initiatives are supported by TS patient support and advocacy groups. Multiple resources are being consolidated and coming together to serve the study of TS, including large well-characterized patient cohorts, and specialized epidemiological databases, such as the unique resource of the Netherlands Twin Register. This research topic showcases current large-scale collaborative efforts aiming to elucidate the genetic and neurobiological background of TS, through diverse approaches; from genomewide association studies aiming to identify common variants associated to the disorder to neuroimaging studies and animal models. Furthermore, current approaches on the clinical assessment and management of the disorder are presented. Propelled by the gradual availability of large scale TS cohorts, novel methodologies, and importantly, sheer enthusiasm by multiple researchers working together across different countries, the new era of the neurobiology of TS holds the promise to identify novel targets for improved therapies.

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Controversies in the Local Management of Lung Cancer

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455614 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-561-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This special edition of Frontiers in Oncology reviews the current efficacy and limitations of surgical and radiotherapeutic management of lung cancer and provides insight into how local management options may change in the future.

Listing 11 - 20 of 26 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (26)


License

CC by (26)


Language

english (26)


Year
From To Submit

2019 (1)

2018 (12)

2017 (7)

2015 (5)

2014 (1)